Development of pharyngeal arches video

Pharyngeal arches are responsible for the formation of the structures derived from mesenchyme of the head and neck region. Their development leads to increase separation of the space between the stomatodaeum which is the primitive mouth and the pericardium containing the developing heart. Also they are placed lateral to the developing brain. The lateral plate mesoderm is responsible for the formation of the pharyngeal mesoderm and this mesoderm will differentiate into the following - cartilage and muscle. Cartilaginous elements later ossify to become bones, while the muscles are derived from in situ differentiation of arch mesoderm or mesenchyme. Other structures  which are associated with the arches invade the developing mesoderm of the arches.

The premandibular mesenchyme leads to the formation of extraocular muscles and they include the

superior medial,and inferior recti, with the oblique inferior oblique and levator palpebrae superioris.

The maxillomandibular mesenchyme leads to  two muscles-

lateral rectus

superior oblique

The nerve to the maxillomandibular mesenchyme includes the trochlear nerve and the abducens.

The mandibular arch gives rise to muscles of mastication-

The mandibular cartilage forms the Meckel's cartilage, the quadrate cartilage, the mental ossicles,  the anterior ligament of malleus and the sphenomandibular ligaments.

The nerve to the mandibular arch is the mandibular nerve is a branch  of the trigeminal (V) nerve

The hyoid arch is the 2nd arch. It gives rise to muscles of facial expression. The nerve supply to the hyoid arch is the facial nerve.

The third arch gives rise to stylopharyngeus. The nerve supply to the stylopharyngeus is the glossopharyngeal nerve.

The 4th pharyngeal arch give rise to the cricothyroid. The nerve supply to the cricothyroid is the superior laryngeal branch of X of the vagus nerve.

The 6th arch gives rise to the intrinsic muscles of larynx. The 6th arch is the

recurrent laryngeal branch of vagus nerve.

The caudal arches gives rise to the muscles of pharynx such as

superior constrictor

middle constrictor and

inferior constrictor

 of pharynx. Nerve supply to the caudal arches are from cranial accessory through the vagus nerve.

The development of the the tongue is close  to the development of the arches.

Pharyngeal arches development video

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