Palm layer 5

 

LAYER OF SUPERFICIAL FLEXOR TENDONS

This is layer 5. The layer of superficial flexor tendons. Please check all items on the web page links. To recapitulate we have removed the superficial palmar arch, common digital nerves and vessels and the median nerve. Please use the dissector to interact with all the links.  Common synovial flexor sheath surrounds all the flexor tendons- in particular the ulnar bursa, which is the bursa that surrounds all flexor tendons together with the flexor tendon of the little finger. The tendons include the flexor digitorum superficialis which is the superficial tendon of the long flexors and the flexor digitorum profundus which is found only minimally in this layer. Flexor digitorum superficialis takes its origin from the common flexor origin and from other structures surrounding this origin and runs downwards under cover of the flexor retinaculum to reach the palm at the midpalmar space with its tendons which gain their insertion by splitting into two to accommodate the tendons of its deep neighbor flexor digitorum profundus.  They gain insertion into the base of the middle phalanges. While the superficialis is supplied in its entirety by the median nerve, the profundus has  two nerve supply with its ulnar head being supplied by the ulnar nerve and the radial part by the median nerve, through its anterior interosseous nerve.

The radial bursa is the synovial flexor sheath that surrounds the flexor pollicis longus which is placed on the thumb.

The long flexors take their origin from the common flexor origin origin at the medial epicondyle of humerus. The flexor pollicis longus takes its origin from the front of the radius. It is found in the radial bursa. We have now seen the last of the short muscles of the thumb which is the opponens pollicis.  In the thenar eminence these muscles are three in number. - the abductor pollicis brevis, the flexor pollicis  brevis and the opponens pollicis. They take origin mainly from the scaphoid tubercle, trapezium, and the flexor retinaculum, and they gain their insertion mainly into the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb.

We have also seen most of the hypothenar eminence muscles. This is the opponens digiti minimi and we have seen the abductor digiti minimi. They also take origin from inside the palm from the hook of hamate and the flexor retinaculum. They are attached mainly to the base of the proximal phalanx of the little finger. The last of the space in the palm are the pulp spaces found in the fingers. The following are found in layer 5 - [common synovial flexor sheath, flexor digitorum superficialis tendons, flexor digitorum profundus tendons, flexor pollicis longus tendons, opponens pollicis, opponens digiti minimi, ulnar bursa, radial bursa and pulp spaces]. In sum we have exposed in this layer synovial flexor sheath, tendons of the flexor digitorum superficialis, tendons of flexor digitorum profundus, tendon of flexor pollicis longus, opponens pollicis and opponens digiti minimi.


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Creator: Oluwole Ogunranti