The kidney is divided into a peripheral cortex, internal medulla and  a middle renal pelvis, which communicates with the pelvis of ureter and in turn joins the ureter. Its medulla contains mainly tubules which extend into the cortex via the medullary rays. The cortex, on the other hand, has numerous glomeruli and only a few renal tubules but considerable convoluted tubules. There are very few glomeruli in the medulla. The pelvis collects urine from the renal tubules via the minor and major calyces. The main diagnostic feature of the kidney are the cortical glomeruli, which may be confused with islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.

Differential diagnosis: Kidney can easily be made out from thyroid and pancreas by examining the features of those glands. Pancreas has characteristically light staining islets with ducts and septa. Thyroid has pinkish follicles which cannot be missed easily and testis has thick tubular  walls.

Kidney explanatory video

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