Face development video
There are 3 processes involved in the development of the face. And they are the frontonasal process, the maxillary process and the mandibular process. The frontonasal process becomes the forehead and the nose. Maxillary process forms face below the eye. The mandibular process forms the face below the mouth. As the development of the face continues, the buccal cavity is being formed. The brain also expands.
At the presomite stage the face. consist of only a bulging forehead superiorly and a developing pericardium inferiorly. Laterally we can see the mandibular process. Stomodeal membrane covers the opening into the mouth. Later the membrane breaks down so that there is a communication between the mouth and the developing pharynx. As development continues the mandibular process on the right and left form the maxillary process. As the mandibular processes continues their development they will now fuse at the mid line forming the lower jaw together with the lower lip.
Superior to the mandibular process and the stomatodaeum but medial to the maxillary process is the olfactory placode. This placode will develop into a frontonasal process. The process consist of two main structures - the medial and lateral nasal folds. The area between the medial and lateral nasal folds is will therefore developing into olfactory system.
As development continues, the lateral nasal fold fuses with developing maxilla forming the nasooptic furrow, which enters into the developing eye placed above the frontal process (i.e. frontonasal process). The medial and lateral nasal folds will meet and fuse forming a space between them which becomes the anterior nares. This will be the opening into the nose. The right and left medial folds then come together reducing the space between them. This space is going to become the nasal septum internally. The maxilla also fuses with the medial nasal fold and the right and left maxilla processes will meet the frontonasal process at the midline so that the two will form the upper lip; while the maxilla alone will form the upper jaw.
Maxillary and mandibular processes now contribute to the formation of the cheeks. The transverse groove separates the bridge of the nose from the developing forebrain which then becomes the forehead. The mesenchyme of the nose forms ossification centers for the ossification of the two nasal bones. Finally the muscles developed from the 2nd pharyngeal arch will invade the face region and the auricle to form the muscles of facial expression which maintain their nerve supply from the facial (VII) nerve.
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Creator: Oluwole Ogunranti