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2 Computerized Neuroanatomy Practical
3 Computerized Osteology Practical and Tutorial
4 Computerized Histology & Cell Biology Practical
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8 Computerized Pocket Anatomy
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Computerized Pocket Anatomy

 

 

 

Oluwole Ogunranti

 

Visiting Professor of Anatomy, Imperial College London and

Member, Wolfson College, Cambridge, UK

 

 

 

Electronic School of Medicine [ESM] Publications

________________________________________________

 

www.oluwoleogunranti.com

 

 

Computerized Pocket Anatomy

 

© Electronic School of Medicine Publication 2012

 

ISBN 978-2756-50-4

 

All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise for sale, without the prior permission of ESM Publications.

 

Printed in Nigeria by

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

Outline

 

   

 

SECTION A

UPPER EXTREMITY

1

     

SECTION B

LOWER EXTREMITY

21

     
     

SECTION C

THORAX

38

SECTION D

ABDOMEN

56

SECTION E

HEAD & NECK

120

SECTION F

NEUROANATOMY

162

SECTION G

EMBRYOLOGY

196

SECTION H

HISTOLOGY

212

SECTION I

INDEX

236

     

 

Pectoral region

 

The area in front of the chest which contains pectoral muscles and carries the breast.

BONES: Pectoral girdle  (clavicle and scapula) to include possibly upper part of humerus

Arteries " :  Branches of 1st and 2nd parts of axillary artery  (highest thoracic, lateral thoracic and thoracoacromial arteries).

Veins : Corresponding veins

Nerves: Branches of brachial plexus -Medial and lateral pectoral nerves.

Muscles  : Pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, subclavius

Lymph

Others: Pectoral fascia , clavipectoral fascia, breast

 

Dissector

Lesson
Full lecture

Practical:
Living anatomy
               
Museum anatomy

 

 

Breast

 

Two glands placed in the pectoral region. The breast is pendulous in the female but rudimentary in the male. They produce milk for infant feeding.

The breast is expanded in the female in order to accommodate the mammary gland which produces milk during lactation but it functions mostly as secondary sexual characteristics and therefore more available in the young or nulliparous as a symbol of romance. It consists of fat or areolar tissue in which is embedded the mammary gland. These glands contains about 15-20 lactiferous ducts which produce milk and transport same to the areola of the breast. The areola is darkened part of the external surface in which is implanted the middle placed nipple that juts out of the surface of the areola. The areola is dark because it contains pigment cells and becomes darker permanently after the first pregnancy. Ligaments of Cooper are attached to the skin of the breast and to the deep fascia. They are responsible for keeping the nulliparous breast to be firm and slightly elastic as opposed to the pendulous and flat breast of the multiparous woman.

The breast is supplied by the lateral thoracic artery, thoracoacromial artery and perforating branches of intercostal arteries. It is drained by the corresponding veins.

Radical mastectomy is performed when the breast is diseased as in formation of cancer. This is because the cancer cells may spread to other parts of the body making it impossible for cure to take place.

 

 Arteries

Thoracic branches of axillary artery

Mammary branches of internal thoracic artery

Mammary branches of intercostal arteries

Lateral   

Thoracoacromial artery and

Perforating branches of intercostal arteries.

Veins

From circulus venosus which drain into

Axillary

Internal thoracic ve

Nerves

Anterior  cutaneous branches of the T4 T5 T6 nerves

Lateral cutaneous branches of T4- T5-T6 nerves

 

Others

Ligaments of Cooper

Breast

 

 

 

Axilla 

The space between the upper part of the upper arm laterally and the upper part of the chest wall medially. Its walls are as follows

 

The anterior wall is muscular and made up of the following muscles

Pectoralis major

Pectoralis minor  

Subclavius

Clavipectoral fascia

The Posterior wall is made up of the following muscles

Subscapularis

Teres major

Latissimus dorsi

 

Lateral  wall is made up of the upper part of humerus and conjoint muscles of coracobrachialis and short head of biceps brachii.

Medial wall is made up of the upper 4 digitations of serratus anterior together with the upper four intercostal spaces containing the intercostals muscles.

Base: The base of the axilla is formed simply by the axillary fascia.

These books are provided on CDs/DVDs and also on internet for interactive learning. When their CDs are installed, they function either

 

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History taking  
Learn clinical examination  
Long cases  
Short cases   
Clinicopathological cases  
Female examination 
Electronic clinical demonstrations  
Electronic clinical conferences  
Electronic clinicopathological conferences  
Integrated Organ examination 
Heart sounds  
Lung sounds

 


Electronic School of Medicine. Creator: Oluwole Ogunranti
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