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  • Computerized Histology and Cell Biology Practical
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Electronic Book- A truly Interactive Electronic Book (TIEB) with companion :  Computerized Histology and Cell Biology Practical. 242 pp


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Secretory apocrine exocrine cell of the fallopian tube x5000
 

 

Computerized Histology & Cell Biology Practical

An electronic manual and workbook for the anatomy medical student

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oluwole Ogunranti

 

Visiting Professor of Anatomy, Imperial College London and

Member, Wolfson College, Cambridge, UK

 

 

 

 

 

 

Electronic School of Medicine [ESM] Publications

____________________________________________________

www.oluwoleogunranti.com


 

 

 

 

 

Computerized Histology & Cell Biology Practical

An electronic manual and workbook for the anatomy medical student

 

 

 

© Electronic School of Medicine Publication 2012

 

 

ISBN 978-2756-85-7

 

  

All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise for sale, without the prior permission of ESM Publications.

 

Other related titles by ESM Publications

Computerized Practical Manuals

Computerized Neuroanatomy Practical

Computerized Embryology Practical

Computerized Osteology Practical and Tutorial

Computerized Living and Clinical Anatomy Practical
Computerized Surgery Practical etc
 

 

Printed in Nigeria by

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PREFACE

 

 

                                                                                                                         

Histology, which used to be anatomy subject, is being pushed further and further into the paraclinical section of the modern medical school curriculum with pathology, whereas it is a bona fide anatomy discipline. Histology began with Marcello Malpighi and ended up with ultrastructure at the eve of the 2nd world war when the electron microscope was invented. The major reason for this of course is the dwindling number of qualified full time anatomists who in the past were mainly histologists or electron microscopist or both. This book is designed to address the problem of teaching histology and cell biology and ipso facto, ultrastructure and cell biology by the non specialist anatomy teachers who need very detailed texts to refresh their memory and sometimes need them to teach, and of course by the medical student who needs it to pass his professional examinations in Histology. Although the cell biology in this book is too detailed for elementary or professional course, it will serve very well for advance courses. Again, like other computerized manuals, it is designed in such a way that the actual materials such as microscopic slides, tissues and electron micrographs may not be needed for study. Just like other previous electronic texts, stupendous illustrations are provided and many modalities of image display are used in this electronic book. They include animations, scan, simulations, morphing, rollover alternate displays etc, to include audios and videos (as microscopes), to enable the learner to study in a modified environment which is learning friendly with well written learning objectives. It is supported by the resource base at the world wide web- Electronic School of Medicine, www.oluwoleogunranti.com

 

This book is another of the TIEB (totally interactive electronic books) series under the Electronic School of Medicine Publications on the World Wide Web in which the hard book is the literature and the actual book is electronic. It is mainly designed for self instructional learning but can also be used in a class room setting, e.g. a digital classroom, or practical laboratory. When used as an electronic workbook for practical learning it is completely computer enabled so that the student can choose to submit his/her assignments electronically by email or by hand. He/she can generate the image he/she needs electronically and then either color and label electronically before submitting by email or simply print and then label manually before submission. Also there is a complete section on computer diagnostic histology in which the computer can be used to assit diagnosis of tissue following database entry index words. The user is therefore advised to use the electronic book very often since it contains lots of interactive materials which cannot be displayed on a hard book with access to materials that fill a whole Library of Medicine, and to use the literature as companion and secondary to it. The electronic book contains mainly internet TIEB links.

 

I am grateful to Imperial College London for giving me an opportunity for Sabbatical in the Human Anatomy Unit and for giving me the time to write this book and others. It is hoped that this little electronic book with its stupendous library access will find use in the area of modern learning and assimilation.

 

 

 

John Oluwole Ogunranti

London

12 July 2011

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

SECTION A

SECTION A- INTRODUCTION

 

Chapter 1

Electronic Tissue Processing

8

Chapter 2

Histochemistry

13

SECTION B

SECTION B- CELL BIOLOGY

 

Chapter 3

Cellular Organelles

19

Chapter 4

Neurocytology

32

Chapter 5

Cell types

36

SECTION C

SECTION C -BASIC TISSUES

 

Chapter 6

Epithelial tissues

102

Chapter 7

Connective tissues

113

Chapter 8

Muscular tissues

118

Chapter 9

Nervous tissues- Neurohistology

125

Chapter 10

Sclerous tissues

133

Chapter 11

Organs-Glands

139

SECTION D

SECTION D- APPLIED HISTOLOGY

 

Chapter 12

Clinical Histology

218

Chapter 13

Computer diagnostic Histology

228

 

Power Point Presentations

243

 

References

244

 

Histology Dictionary

245

 

REFERENCES

 

 

 

INSTRUCTIONS

 

 

Electronic Tissue processing   page 12

Cell Biology    page 31

Draw and label neurons and neuroglia page 97

Clinical Histology  page 225

Computer Diagnostic Histology   page 241
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION A

 

INTRODUCTION


 

 

 

 1

Histology dictionary  Cell biology dictionary Practical dictionary Cell Biology Museum Histology Museum Histology  Museum list Chapter Quiz  Medical Dictionary   Histovoice

 

Electronic Tissue Processing
Psychomotor learning

 

Learning objective

Outline the steps taken in manual processing of tissue for demonstration under the light microscope.

 

Obtain tissue

Tissues can be obtained from any part of the animal body depending on what is to be studied under the microscope.

biopsy1atissuespecimenTissue to be studied

 

Fixation

Fixation simply means the ability to keep the tissue or secure tissue in the position or state it was before or at death. It has the following functions

1.                          It prevents autolysis and putrefaction which are processes that follow decay or are indicant /concomitant of decay

2.                          It increases optical differentiation- that is, it makes tissue more visualizable.

3.                          It assists in keeping tissue as near life as possible histoarchitecturally.

4.                          It converts sol to gel; that is it hardens tissues in order to make them more amenable to sectioning or cutting.

Chemicals that assist fixation are called fixatives. They are used in gross anatomy for embalming of bodies prior to dissection. They are chemicals which may be simple or compound fixatives.

 

biopsy2a tissuespecimenfixed1Fixed tissue

 

Dehydration

After fixation the next process is dehydration. This is because water in the tissue either from its life state or acquired during fixation, is not mixable with embedding medium for cutting (unless of course the embedding medium is water). Dehydration is carried out gently in graded series of alcohol, beginning from low to high- e.g. 30%, 50%, 70% (2x), 90% 95% and then absolute alcohol.

 

dehydration

 

Clearing

Alcohol has a nasty property of making tissues opaque. To make them transparent you need a clearing agent. The best used is xylene or chloroform.

clearing

 

Impregnation

This is done by infiltrating with paraffin wax three times for 2-4 hours each.  In routine histology this is carried out in paraffin wax whose melting point is from 56-580C.

ovena

 

Embedding

Embedding is performed in fresh molten wax.

wax5

 

Blocking

Blocking and casting are done on block of wood in order to allow the cooled solid wax to be affixed to the wood.

 

HPIM3612

 

Microtomy

This is the process of sectioning the tissue through the combination of wax and tissue with a microtome. The sections are picked up on glass sides in a warm bath which flattens the wax and allows it to be affixed to the previously albuminized slides.

microtome5

 

Staining

The commonest stain in histology is haematoxylin and eosin.

slide2

 

Mounting

Sections are mounted on the glass sides with a mountant such as Canada balsam or DPX and covered with coverslip. They are then kept permanently and can be viewed under a microscope.

HPIM3646

 

 

 Instruction: Use this  Electronic Tissue processing link provided to study all the processes of manual tissue processing and see the video. Write down every step showed on the animation/video.

 


 

 

 

These books are provided on CDs/DVDs and also on internet for interactive learning. When their CDs are installed, they function either

 

  NON-TIEB

Degree Anatomy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

History taking  
Learn clinical examination  
Long cases  
Short cases   
Clinicopathological cases  
Female examination 
Electronic clinical demonstrations  
Electronic clinical conferences  
Electronic clinicopathological conferences  
Integrated Organ examination 
Heart sounds  
Lung sounds

 


Electronic School of Medicine. Creator: Oluwole Ogunranti
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