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2 Computerized Neuroanatomy Practical
3 Computerized Osteology Practical and Tutorial
4 Computerized Histology & Cell Biology Practical
5 Computerized Embryology Practical
6 Computerized Living anatomy Practical
7 Computerized Gross anatomy Practical
8 Computerized Pocket Anatomy
9 Computerized Medicine Practical
   

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Electronic Book- A truly Interactive Electronic Book (TIEB) with companion :  Computerized Embryological Practical  139 pp.


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Computerized Embryology Practical

An electronic manual and workbook for the anatomy medical student

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oluwole Ogunranti

 

Visiting Professor of Anatomy, Imperial College London and

Member, Wolfson College, Cambridge, UK

 

 

 

 

 

 

Electronic School of Medicine [ESM] Publications

____________________________________________________

http://www.oluwoleogunranti.com


 

 

 

 

 

 

Computerized Embryology Practical

An electronic manual and workbook for the anatomy medical student

 

 

 

© Electronic School of Medicine Publication 2012

 

 

ISBN 978-2756-97-0

 

  

All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise for sale, without the prior permission of ESM Publications. 

Other related titles by ESM Publications

Computerized Practical Manuals

Computerized Neuroanatomy Practical

Computerized Histology & Cell Biology Practical

Computerized Osteology Practical and Tutorial

Computerized Living and Clinical Anatomy Practical

Computerized Gross Anatomy Practical
Computerized Surgery Practical etc
 


Other advanced books published by ESM

Degree Anatomy
Reproductive biology, Technology and Medicine
Recombinant DNA and Genetic Medicine 

 

Printed in Nigeria by Daveworld - +234 803 970 7008

  

 

 

 

 CONTENT

 

 

SECTION A

SECTION A- INTRODUCTION

 

Chapter 1

Beginning of Life

1

Chapter 2

In vitro fertilization

12

SECTION B

SECTION B- EMBRYO

 

Chapter 3

0-4 weeks embryo

22

Chapter 4

4-7 weeks embryo

28

Chapter 5

Streeter’s horizons: embryo growth

32

Chapter 6

Face and Palate

36

Chapter 7

Tongue

41

Chapter 8

Pharyngeal arches

44

Chapter 9

Pharyngeal Pouches

60

Chapter 10

Pharyngeal Clefts and Pharyngeal anomalies

63

Chapter 11

Heart

67

Chapter 12

Blood vessels and fetal circulation

73

Chapter 13

Gut

78

Chapter 14

Respiratory Tract

85

Chapter 15

Renal system

88

Chapter 16

Reproductive system

92

Chapter 17

External Genitalia

97

Chapter 18

Gonads

101

Chapter 19

Brain and nervous system

103

SECTION C

SECTION C- FETUS

 

Chapter 20

Fetus/fetal growth

107

Chapter 21

Birth

111

SECTION D

SECTION D- APPLIED EMBRYOLOGY

 

Chapter 22

Clinical Embryology

116

Chapter 23

Teratology

123

Chapter 24

Ultrasound Embryology

126

Chapter 25

Atlas of Congenital anomalies

130

 

Presentations

135

 

References

136

 

Embryology Dictionary

137

 

Index

150

 

 

 

 


 

 

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK

 

 

You have just acquired a unique book which is also the first of its kind. It is a dream of a moving library in which information can be check out on a larger resource base as quickly as it is possible, which in this case is the World Wide Web. Do not USE THIS BOOK LIKE ANY OTHER OR READ IT THE WAY OTHER BOOKS ARE READ. It is an Electronic Book which means it is a book to be read or used on the computer. Open your CD/DVD and copy all the items into your computer in case the CD is lost. Then use the links on the computer and store your CD/DVD in a safe place.

 

Prelab

Your teacher may use the link on the Teacher’s page to introduce the Practical for the day by digital projection in the laboratory.

 

Lab

The actual literature or hard book is meant for revision or, using the language of the Electronic School of Medicine, for postlab. For laboratory activity the actual Electronic Book should be used. In the classroom or laboratory the electronic book must be hooked unto internet via a modem on a laptop or any other internet link. Then use the computer to perform instructions and answer all questions on the workbook. Each chapter is a single laboratory schedule. Take time to check the links with other colleagues in a practical group of 2 or more other students. It is preferable to have the practical item on the tray or trolley during the use of the book. But if not available, use the illustrations on the book and then label or color the diagrams (just like for the actual practical material) which may be generated automatically using the computer or manually. You then have the option of either submitting manually after the practical session or digitally through email to your learning instructor/teacher.

 

During the period of your practical class try to open links that would make you as a group understand the laboratory schedule you are performing, which will include links to  images, videos, or audios, which are played to the hearing of everyone in your group.

 

Postlab

In the comfort of your own home you can perform postlab or revision. Again it is wise to begin with the Electronic Book itself. Check it out on internet and make sure it assists you in understanding the subject matter of the practical. After then you can safely use only the literature for revision which will include studying your own labelled diagrams and/or comments together with the comments found in the book. You can perform quizzes after every chapter and these are themselves interactive or do revision  here.

 

More

Check the link TIEBS on internet to obtain more information on what your Truly (or totally) Interactive Electronic Book you have just purchased can do for you.
 

 

 

INSTRUCTIONS

 

 

General

ü  Draw and label all images using the appropriate links

ü  Check color code for each developing structure and follow it from its original to the end process

Specific

ü  List all early congenital anomalies, p 20

ü  Examine the procedures above and outline those you consider ethical and those not ethical in the human, p 21

ü  List all late congenital anomalies, p 34

ü  List all face and palate congenital anomalies p 38

ü  List all congenital anomalies of the tongue, p 41

ü  Give muscles derived from these pharyngeal arches and their arterial and nerve supply together with their venous returns, p 51

ü  List cartilages derived from these pharyngeal arches and their arterial and nerve supply together with their venous returns, p 55

ü  List NERVES and then muscles and, cartilages derived from these pharyngeal arches and their arterial and nerve supply together with their venous returns, p 56

ü  List pouches derived from these pharyngeal arches and their arterial and nerve supply together with their venous returns, p 61

ü  Give clefts derived from these pharyngeal arches and their arterial and nerve supply together with their venous returns, p 63

ü  Give anomalies of development of the pharyngeal arches, p 64

ü  Give the germ layer derivative of the pharyngeal structures, p 64

ü  List all congenital anomalies of the heart, p 72

ü  List all congenital anomalies of arteries and veins, p 77

ü  List all congenital anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract, p 83

ü  List all congenital anomalies of the lung, p 86

ü  List all congenital anomalies of the kidney, p 85

ü  List all congenital anomalies of the reproductive system, p 93

ü  List all congenital anomalies of the external genitalia, p 97

ü  List all congenital anomalies of the gonads, p 100

ü  List all congenital anomalies of the nervous system, p 105


 

 

 

 

 

SECTION A

 

INTRODUCTION


 

 

 

 1

Embryology dictionary   Practical dictionary  Embryology Museum  Embryology Museum list  Chapter Quiz  Medical Dictionary   Embryology video   Congenital anomalies    EMBRYOLOGY SCAN

 

Beginning of Life
Cognate identification learning

 

Learning objective

Outline the steps involved in the formation of new life, beginning from gametogenesis to fertilization.

 

Oogonium

Oogenesis is the development of the egg from its primordial germ cells known as the oogonium. When a female child is born all the oogonia have already developed into the primary oocyte stage through the process of mitosis. Firstly the primitive germ cell divides mitotically to populate the genital ridge before even the development of the ovary. Their mitotic division ends when they come into contact with a layer of granulosa cells. Oogonium is the most primitive germ cell. It divides mitotically into primary oocytes.

Division of the oogonium is arrested until shortly before ovulation in each of the germ cell at puberty and after. All germ cells are at prophase of the first meiotic division therefore at birth. Only one cell is released by the ovary per month although this can be increased minimally. Oogonium divides into oocyte by mitosis.

 

 

Gross  Museum  Scan  Malformations

Cell types
Anatomy
Organ integration
Quiz

Physiology

Biochemistry

Chemical Pathology

Pathology

Pharmacology
Medicine
Surgery

 

 

Oocyte

Oocyte is the immature egg which is first formed after the last mitotic division that produces the most immature egg called the primary oocyte. Primary oocyte enters into the first meiotic division to produce two daughter cells called secondary oocytes. They are released at the second meiotic division which is arrested at 2nd metaphase stage ovulation. At the penetration of the sperm cell, the secondary oocyte completes its second meiotic division to become the ovum. The ovum pronucleus is fertilized by the sperm pronucleus.

 Primary oocyte

The primary oocyte destined to be released in one month is surrounded by pregranulosa cells which are flat epithelial cells. This primary oocyte must undergo maturation, or ripening process for its release. The primary oocyte acquires crescentic shaped mitochondria and fat globules; the nucleus also become eccentric. The oocyte undergoes germinal vesicle breakdown which heralds the resumption of meiosis which had been arrested at the prophase of meiosis I just before birth.

 

Germinal vesicle breakdown

 

Germinal vesicle is the enlarged nucleus of egg as meiosis ends. It had started shortly before birth. The egg that would be released at a particular month then undergoes germinal vesicle breakdown to herald the resumption of meiosis at the primary oocyte stage. This is the process by which its contained vesicle, which makes it look big, disappears so that the nucleus becomes smaller. It then continues meiosis to become secondary oocyte which is released at ovulation. Ovulation is the release of the egg  (secondary oocyte) at midcycle of the menstrual cycle.

 


 

 

 


 
Secondary oocyte

The egg at the stage of ovulation has already completed its first meiotic division and has extruded its first polar body and it is therefore secondary oocyte. Its first polar body can be seen at the perivitelline space. The cytoplasm of the oocyte released contains considerable amount of deutoplasm necessary for nutriment of the egg as it slides into the peritoneal cavity into the oviduct.

Once the first polar body is extruded, the secondary oocyte is thus. The meiotic division becomes arrested secondarily until sperm penetration of the egg in the oviduct which then leads to the extrusion of the second polar body. After the extrusion of the second polar body the secondary oocyte becomes the ovum.

 

Ovum

After the extrusion of the second polar body the egg becomes the ovum. It is ready for fertilisation after pronuclei formation, which then transforms it into zygote.

Gross  Museum  Scan  Malformations

Cell types
Anatomy
Organ integration
Quiz

Physiology

Biochemistry

Chemical Pathology

Pathology

Pharmacology
Medicine
Surgery

 

 

Ovulation

This is the release of the egg  (secondary oocyte) at midcycle of the menstrual cycle.
Ovulation releases egg into the fallopian tube by ovum uptake through fimbriae.

Gross  Museum  Scan  Malformations

Cell types
Anatomy
Organ integration
Quiz

Physiology

Biochemistry

Chemical Pathology

Pathology

Pharmacology
Medicine
Surgery

 

 

 

These books are provided on CDs/DVDs and also on internet for interactive learning. When their CDs are installed, they function either as internet TIEB or CD-ROM TIEB

 

  NON-TIEB

Degree Anatomy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

History taking  
Learn clinical examination  
Long cases  
Short cases   
Clinicopathological cases  
Female examination 
Electronic clinical demonstrations  
Electronic clinical conferences  
Electronic clinicopathological conferences  
Integrated Organ examination 
Heart sounds  
Lung sounds

 


Electronic School of Medicine. Creator: Oluwole Ogunranti
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