Biological psychiatry

 

Historial background

Pschiatry began as a subject which recognised the input of demons and demonic forces in neuropsychiatric disorders. Sigmund Freud debunked this demonic  notion of psychiatric diseases and instituted the psychoanalytic theory in which it is suggested that neuropsychiatric illnesses arose as a result of abnormal negotiation of the psychosexual stages of development during growth and development. It was a metanarrative which did not have a proof or indeed evidence base. It helped to butress the social school of thought for mental illnessses. So for many years social scientists sought to find the problems in the society that led to mental illnessses. At these times it was the social sciences school of mental diseases which held sway until the early 1980s when biological scientists began to identify biological problems in mental illnessses of the functional variety. It was  earlier thought that the brain of a schizophrenic had no morphological difference from the normal brain. But modern studies which began in 1980s found this not to be the case. And today we now have found areas in which the brain of the schizophrenic is different from those of normal persons. The following have been found

Anatomy

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Cortical atrophy

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Cortical enlargement

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Amgygdala volume reduction

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Hippocampus volume reduction

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Right prefrontal cortex reduction in size

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Thalamus reduction in size

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Fusiform gyrus smaller

 

Physiology

Also we have difference in function in the following areas

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Reduced metabolism in the thalamus

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Reduced metabolic function in the prefrontal cortex

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Reduced perceptual-motor speed,

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 Reduced ability to shift attention

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Reduced ability to filter out background stimuli

 

Pathology

Abnormal structure of the planum temporale

The whole of the above structure and functional abnormalities seem to point to a reduction in the function of cortico-striato-thalamic [see corticothalamic tract] circuit which may suggest a simple limbic de-afferentation. Also the association with developmental mishaps such as winter birth, increasing parental age to include genetic susceptibility are all now very well known.

Biochemistry
The dopamine theory of schizophrenia also supports the above and suggests certain areas with abnormal, dopamine level as the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic cortex and possibly also the nucleus accumbens septi in schizophrenics.

Molecular biology
This describes genes that are involved in mental illnesses.

 

There is nothing in anatomy not found in this website

Electronic School of Medicine
 Creator: Oluwole Ogunranti

   
                      

1 cingulate gyrus 2 subcallosal gyrus forming limbic lobe

 
Brainstem Medulla Pons Midbrain Thalamus Epithalamus
Basal ganglia Forebrain Temporal lobe Cerebral operculum Remove operculum Wall of lateral ventricle 1
Wall of lateral ventricle 2 Wall of lateral ventricle 3 lateral ventricle 1 lateral ventricle 2 Base of brain Rhomboid fossa

 


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