Countercurrent multiplier system

 

The end result is to make the environment of the loop of Henle to be hypertonic. This environment is placed in the pyramids. As urine enters the descending limb of Henle's loop it carries both water and solute. It looses its water in this limb and when it gets to the counter limb at the thin ascending limb of Henle's loop it looses its solute rather than water because the membrane of this limb is impermeable to water. At the thick segment to the ascending limb of Henle's loop, the membrane is impermeable to both water and solute (Na+). Carrier transport mechanism then takes over to pump solute mainly Na+ ions outside using Na+- K+ ATPase

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