MITRAL INCOMPETENCE

     

Symptoms: Fatigue; exertional dyspnea; orthopnea; severe throbbing headache with (or without) aura such as visual disturbances; nausea, vomiting; photophobia; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; vertigo; confusion; seizures; diarrhea; fainting.
Special signs: JVP shows giant 'a' waves with sinus rhythm; also prominent 'v' waves; systolic thrill palpable at apex; signs of pulmonary hypertension. S1 is absent or inaudible; S2 is widely split; S3 or S4 may be heard; Most prominent auscultatory find is pansystolic murmur (3/4) heard at the apex.
Special investigations: Pulmonary hypertension on Chest X-ray showing pulmonary venous congestion, Kerley B lines. 

SHORT DESCRIPTION:
Mitral incompetence is caused by either congenital anomaly or rheumatic fever. It causes regurgitation of left ventricular content into the right atrium thereby altering the hemodynamics of the left side of heart.

 

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