AORTIC REGURGITATION (INCOMPETENCE)  


 

Symptoms: Asymptomatic, heart beat heard while lying down, palpitation, exertional dyspnea, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
Special signs: Sinus tachycardia, Water-hammer pulse Corrigan's pulse, Quincke's pulse, Traube's sign, Duroziez's sign, Pulmonary edema, cardiogenic shock, Austin Flint murmur, midsystolic ejection murmur best heard at mid-sternal border at 3rd intercostal space
Special investigations: ECG shows left ventricular hypertrophy, ST segment depression; T wave inversion in leads I, aVL, V5 and V6; left axis deviation.

SHORT DESCRIPTION:
Disease may be congenital or caused by bacterial endocarditis or a previous rheumatic fever. It is caused by primary valvular disease or by primary aortic root disease leading to shortening of aortic valvules which prevents opening of the valve at systole and its closure at diastole. This causes regurgitation at ventricular systole. Its acute form is caused mostly by bacterial endocarditis. It is associated with rheumatoid spondylitis, congenital biscupid aortic valves and also with ventricular septal defect.

 

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