Layers of retina

 

Retina is the neural layer of the eyeball. It is an extension of the brain substance. It has therefore several layers which contains cell bodies and neurons.

Cell bodies have central and peripheral processes. The retina has the following layers

1. Outermost layer is occupied by pigment zone/ layer which contains pigment cells. Other types of cells in the retina include

2. Layers of rods and cones. Visual/light receptor cells which are mainly rods and cones are found in this layer. Rods are responsible for scotopic vision. Rods are connected to one ganglion cell as if they were whispering along a line. The point of synapse is in the lateral genicular body. They are responsible for vision.

Cones are responsible for photopic vision which are responsible for color vision. One cone is connected to many cells 

3. External limiting membrane. It contains the central processes of rods and cones which runs across it to gain access to the optic nerve.

4. Outer nuclear layer. It contains cell bodies of sensory neurons whose peripheral processes point towards the eye and central processes point towards the optic nerve

5. Outer molecular layer

6. Inner molecular layer

7. Inner nuclear layer

8. Ganglion cell layer with second order neurons of sensory cells

9. Nerve fiber layer containing axons of 2nd order neuron of sensory system and it includes fibers of rods and cones.

10. Internal limiting membrane.

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