Cervix 

 

Female reproductive organ which interconnects the vagina with the uterus.

Arteries of cervix

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Uterine artery

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Ovarian artery

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Vaginal artery

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Middle rectal artery

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Azygos artery of the vagina

The azygos arteries of the vagina  are two, anterior and posterior, and are inferior terminal  branches of the uterine artery. They receive anastomoses from branches of vaginal artery and internal pudendal artery.

Veins of cervix

Veins correspond to the arteries and accompany them. They are also provided with anastomoses with each other and venoarterial passage whereby substances can diffused from vein into artery and vice versa because of the close proximity of the two in the reproductive tract of the female. The process is gradient dependent. 

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Uterine vein

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Ovarian vein

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Vaginal vein

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Middle rectal vein

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Azygos vein of the vagina

Nerves of cervix

Nerves of the cervix are from the paracervical ganglion, (postganglionic) with one prominent ganglion called uterine cervical ganglion. The preganglionic fibers haved passed through the

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Inferior hypogastric plexus and 

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Uterovaginal plexus

Fibers are as follows

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Parasympathetic fibers are vasomotor and inhibitory from sacral outflow (S2-4).

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Sympathetic fibers are from T12 and L1. They are excitatory.
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Branches of the inferior hypogastric plexus

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Motor fibers are poorly understood. Vasoconstrictor nerves are sympathetic and probably motor to uterine musculature.

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Sensory fibers are from the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems.

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Pain from the cervix is mediated via the nervi erigentes (parasympathetic) from S2-4 sacral outflow.

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Pain of labor (uterine) is mediated by sympathetic nerves from the lower segments of the thoracic spinal cord.  

See cervical dilation
       cervical effacement

 



Check cervical dilation in labour

 

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