Constipation

Infrequent or difficult evacuation of bowel. It must be shown that it is less frequent than usual for the individual patient.

Causes

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General

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Poor diet

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Old age

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Post operative conditions and pain

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Irritable bowel syndrome

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Anorectal disease

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Anal fissure

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Fistula-in-ano

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Rectal prolapse

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Anal strictures

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Intestinal obstruction

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Colorectal carcinoma

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Diverticulosis

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Pseudo-obstruction

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Pelvic mass

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Metabolic or endocrine diseases

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Hypercalcemia

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Porphyria

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Lead poisoning

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Hypothyroidism

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Hypokalemia

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Neuromuscular conditions

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Aganglionosis e.g. Chagas' disease, Hirchsprung's disease

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Systemic sclerosis

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Diabetic neuropathy

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Damage to spinal cord or pelvic nerves supplying rectum e.g. nervi erigentes

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Drugs

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Opiates

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Iron

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Anticholinergics

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Others

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Laxative abuse

 

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