This simply means cloning a gene and using its peptide product in the clinic for treatment. Cloning-to-clinic is therefore both basic to the science of pharmacy (and indeed pharmacology) as it is to clinical medicine and therapeutics. It is very much of interest in the design of new drugs for example. If a receptor of a drug can be identified, its gene cloned and then large quantities of the gene product obtained by in vitro translation, it is possible to construct a molecule that is antagonistic to it. Once these molecule is obtained it can then be used to treat the condition in which the receptors need to be blocked.
Data from James 1993 (see Moor 1997)
Example of this method is in the condition acquired immune deficiency syndrome therapy. It has been possible to clone AIDS virus target molecules (e.g. CD4+ receptors in T lymphocytes. It has also been possible to provide recombinant products which are antagonistic to these receptors. It is then possible to try out whether the antagonistic molecules can bind to the CD4+ receptors so that when the viral particles enter the body they will be displaced by the anatagonists and would therefore not find any place to bind. Other molecules which have been studied include hemoglobin, dihydrofolic reductase, lysozyme, phospholipase A, thyroid hormones binding prealbumin, renin receptor, insulin receptor, atrial natriuretic factor receptor.
Peptide products for cloning to clinic
These are directly synthesized from their genes and are used in three categories as