Cloning-to-clinic

This simply means cloning a gene and using its peptide product in the clinic for treatment. Cloning-to-clinic is therefore both basic to the science of pharmacy (and indeed pharmacology) as it is to clinical medicine and therapeutics.  It is very much of interest in the design of new drugs for example. If a receptor of a drug can be identified, its gene cloned and then large quantities of the gene product obtained by in vitro translation, it is possible to construct a molecule that is antagonistic to it. Once these molecule is obtained it can then be used to treat the condition in which the receptors need to be blocked.

Pharmaceutical protein

Market size (kg)

Market value ($ x 106)

Minimum sheep expression required (g/litre)

α1-antitrypsin

7500

750

2.0               50,000

Plasminogen activator

75

750

0.1               10,000

Factor IX

2

60

0.01              3,000

Erythropoietic

0.2

300

0.001             3,000

Factor VIII

0.975

375

0.0001          10,000

Data from James 1993 (see Moor  1997)

Example of this method is in the condition acquired immune deficiency syndrome therapy.  It has been possible to clone AIDS virus target molecules (e.g. CD4+ receptors in T lymphocytes. It has also been possible to provide recombinant products which are antagonistic to these receptors. It is then possible to try out whether the antagonistic molecules can bind to the CD4+ receptors so that when the viral particles enter the body they will be displaced by the anatagonists and would therefore not find any place to bind. Other molecules which have been studied include hemoglobin, dihydrofolic reductase, lysozyme, phospholipase A, thyroid hormones binding prealbumin, renin receptor, insulin receptor, atrial natriuretic factor receptor.

Peptide products for cloning to clinic

These are directly synthesized from their genes and are used in three categories as

  • First generation products
  • Second generation products
  • Molecules derived from transgenic animals

See recombinant DNA products

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cell types
Anatomy

Organ integration
Quiz

Physiology

Biochemistry

Chemical Pathology

Pathology

Pharmacology

 

There is nothing in anatomy not found in this website

Electronic School of Medicine
Creator: Oluwole Ogunranti

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Main Subject Course Links

Anatomy Anesthesia Biochemistry Chemical pathology Community Health
Dermatology ENT Gynecology Hematology Imaging
Medicine Medical microbiology Obstetrics Ophthalmology Pathology
Pediatrics Pharmacology Physiology Psychiatry    Surgery/Orthopedics
eLab eOSCE eProcedures eInvestigations eSchool/Videopage
eOrgans eLocator Anatomy Museum eDissector eFractures
All diseases eClerking eTreatment eDoctor ePatient