Uterus 

 

Female reproductive organ which houses the embryo and fetus before child birth.

Ligaments of uterus

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Anterior ligament (or uterovesical fold; (pubocervical fascia)

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Posterior ligament (rectovaginal fold)

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Uterosacral ligaments (recto-uterine folds)

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Transverse cervical ligament (or cardinal or Mackenrodt ligament)

These are the true ligaments of the uterus because they lengthen with prolapse of that organ and hence must help to hold it in check

False ligaments are

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Broad ligament

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Round ligament of the uterus

The two are formed from the gubernaculum

Arteries

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Uterine artery from the internal iliac artery

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Ovarian artery from the abdominal aorta. The two anastomose at the mesosalpinx (see below). The Uterine arteries have a unique away of supplying the whole of the uterus. Firstly they divide into anterior and posterior arcuate arteries at the uterine walls. Then they pass transversely across the uterine tissue anastomosing with each other (left and right vessels). They provide radial branches which pass into the myometrial layers and then give the spiral or helicine arterioles, which supply the endometrium. These helicine arterioles are important in the process of menstruation.

Veins

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Uterine veins drain into the internal iliac vein.

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Ovarian veins drain into the inferior vena cava on the right) and left renal vein on the left. The two veins anastomose at the mesosalpinx. The rule is for vein and artery to be in contact so much that materials can diffuse from one to another in the process known as venoarterial passage. This influences the circulation, making it a closed one, and a functional portal system, since venous blood coming from the ovary, which contains large amounts of hormones would have diffused its hormones into the arteries that supply the organs  along the mesosalpinx and later on the sides of the vagina and the cervix. There is a longitudinal anastomoses from the ovarian vein or artery superiorly at the level of the ovary to the azygos vein or artery of the vagina below, which is a tributary (or branch) of internal pudendal vein. The vessels, which take part in this anastomoses are as follows
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Uterine vessels

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Ovarian vessels

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Vaginal vessels

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Middle rectal vessels

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Azygos vessels of the vagina

Nerves: Uterine nerves

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Branches of the inferior hypogastric plexus

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Motor fibers are poorly understood. Vasoconstrictor nerves are sympathetic and probably motor to uterine musculature.

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Sensory fibers are from the paraysympathetic and sympathetic systems.

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Pain from the cervix is mediated via the nervi erigentes (parasympathetic) from S2-4 sacral outflow.

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Pain of labor (uterine) is mediated by sympathetic nerves from the lower segments of the thoracic spinal cord.

More on uterus

Introduction
Embryology
Histology
Gross anatomy
Lymphatic drainage
Organ integration
Clinical anatomy

Quiz

Dissector
Physiology

Biochemistry

Chemical Pathology

Anatomical Pathology

Pharmacology

Imaging

Medicine

Surgery

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