Physiology of ureter

Ureters course in an oblique fashion through the bladder wall through the detrussor muscle at the trigone of bladder. The detrussor forms a  normal tone which helps to prevent back flow of urine into ureters, especially during pressure build up in the urinary bladder. Peristaltic waves pass through the ureters and help to empty them of their urine into the urinary bladder

Abnormal vesicoureteral reflux occurs in some individuals leading to back flow of urine into the ureters and causing megaureters with increase in pressure of renal calyces and renal medulla and subsequent damage to these structure.

Chemical pathology of kidney
Metabolic acidosis
Metabolic alkalosis

Urination

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


    

Glomerular filtration of urine

 


Cross section through the kidney x40

 

 

 

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