Physiology of female sexual climax

 

Muscular layer of the vagina consists of smooth muscle which are longitudinal external pillars with an internal circular layer. The longitudinal muscles are continuous with fibers of the same disposition from the cervix and uterus. The only skeletal muscle which surrounds the vagina does so at its orifice and it is the involuntary sphincter of the vagina called the bulbospongiosus. This muscle is the muscle of sexual climax. It is controlled from the superior hypogastric plexus, just like in the male and it is capable of rhythmic contraction. Although it is skeletal, its nerve supply is actually autonomic. It also seems to have reciprocal connections with the general nervous system since excitation of the muscle can lead to generalized reaction as in clonic-tonic contractions, which is seen in sexual climax in the female. This climax has been shown to involve many parts of the body. Firstly, the rhythmic contraction seems to involve all reproductive organs via generalized autonomic discharge- cervical, uterine and vaginal. It then extends to flexor and extensor somatic muscles. It also seems that deep pressure on the vaginal plexuses  (uterovaginal plexus) from where vaginal nerves issue (also from the inferior hypogastric plexus) must be of importance in achieving climax. The vaginal nerves follow the vaginal arteries and are distributed with them. They are wired to all erectile tissues such as the clitoris, and the bulb of vestibule. They are also distributed to the greater vestibular glands (which produce some secretions) and the urethra.

Vaginal nerves arise from uterovaginal plexus and from the inferior hypogastric plexus.  The transudation of fluid across the vaginal wall, which accompanies female arousal may be the same nervous mechanism which causes erection of clitoris and penis and from the parasympathetic system- nervi erigentes of the S2-4 sacral outflow.  The mechanism itself may be due to the vasodilation of the blood vessels around the vagina, causing transudation of fluid. These fibers include of course sensory ones that help to carry tactile sensation into the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems for general arousal.  But the motor function of sexual climax in which the bulbospongiosus goes into rhythmic contractions, is due to  inferior hypogastric plexus. In the male, this function is (ejaculation) is mediated via the superior hypogastric plexus. In both sexes, it is sympathetic wholly. As a matter of fact,  pacemaker is used to stimulate the superior hypogastric plexus in paraplegics in order to cause ejaculation.

 Two types of sexual climax can be recognized in the female and it seems they follow closely the sexual nervous system. They are 

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