Pulmonary ventilation

Two main processes are involved in pulmonary ventilation or breathing.

  • Inspiration. This is the drawing of air into the lungs
  • Expiration: This is the drawing out of air from the lungs.

Two main mechanisms can be used to expand and contract the lungs in the processes of inspiration and expiration. They are as follows

  • Downward and upward movements of the diaphragm
  • Depression and elevation of ribs which decrease or increase in the diameter of chest cavity thereby increasing or decreasing lung capacity.

Muscles are used for the actions above. Thus the external intercostal assists inspiration while the internal and intimate intercostal assists expiration.

Abdominal musculature help to push against the diaphragm and helps to empty the lungs in expiration

Ribs are raised by the following

Others are the pectorales musculature

Muscles which pull the rib cage downwards which help expiration include

  1. Rectus abdominis
  2. lnternal intercostal muscle

 
 

 

 

 

 

    

 

 

 


Microanatomy
Gross anatomy
Histochemistry  

 

 

 

Cell Biology

Histology

Embryology
Gross anatomy
Lymphatic drainage
Organ integration
Clinical anatomy

Quiz

Dissector

Physiology

Biochemistry

Pharmacology

Chemical Pathology

Anatomical Pathology

Imaging

Medicine

Surgery

Main Subject Course Links

eAnatomy eAnesthesia eBiochemistry eChemical pathology eCommunity Health
eDermatology eENT eGynecology eHematology eImaging
eMedicine eMedical microbiology eObstetrics eOphthalmology ePathology
ePediatrics ePharmacology ePhysiology ePsychiatry    eSurgery/eOrthopedics
eLab eOSCE eProcedures eInvestigations eSchool/Videopage
eOrgans eLocator Anatomy Museum eDissector eFractures/Dissect-it-yourself
All diseases eClerking eTreatment eDoctor ePatient

 

Electronic School of Medicine
Creator: Oluwole Ogunranti