Physiology of pineal gland

Pineal gland produces many hormones of which melatonin has been best studied. The hormones are passed into the ventricles in CSF and to the blood though capillaries. The production of melatonin is influenced by the exposure of the animal to darkness thereby suggesting that the hormone is useful in circadian rhythms.\

The gland contains corpora arenacea which were once thought to be degeneration with advancing age. It is now thought to be combination of carrier protein to the hormone melatonin (neuroepiphysin) and calcium forming sand particles which may then be called brain sands on X-ray or CT scan.


 

Cross section through pineal gland; low power

 
Pineal gland physiology


       

 

 

 

 

 

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