Physiology of female external genitalia


The general function of the female external genitalia is to said the process of copulation for maximum excitement which ultimately leads to increased fecundity (fertility). The most important organ is the  clitoris, although other structures aid its function. For example, the ischiocavernosus aids its erection after excitement, which may be tactile or pressure (supplied by superior hypogastric plexus or presacral nerve). It is connected via the commissure of bulbs which is a plexus of veins that interconnect the clitoris with the bulbs of vestibule, to the clitoris. Any excitement from the clitoris is bound to be extended via the bulbs to the other aspects of the genitalia and vice versa. Hence it is expected that excitement of the external genitalia will ultimately connect with the clitoris. The bulbospongiosus is the ultimate in the formation of sexual climax. It lies external to the bulbs of vestibule and is inserted to the sides and dorsum of clitoris. Stimulation of the bulbospongiosus is therefore most likely to lead to clitoral orgasm. The role it (bulbospongiosus) plays in vaginal orgasm is not clear. Hence the bulbospongiosus in the female has been labeled involuntary sphincter of  vagina. It is supplied by nervi erigentes. The clitoris is specially designed for sexual arousal mechanism in the female. It is therefore the most sensitive part of the female sexual nervous system (but there are exceptions). Also, the glans clitoridis is the most sensitive part of the clitoris. It is removed in minimal female circumcision. In maximal female circumcision, the whole of the labia majora are removed along with the clitoris. It is also responsible for the maximal stimulation of sexual activity as in climax or orgasm. Again there are exceptions. This kind of orgasm is said to be different from the vaginal orgasm and is therefore called clitoral orgasm. Vaginal orgasm is not very common and may be present in less than 35% of women but clitoral orgasm is commoner probably because of masturbative activity of women in their earlier ages or easy manipulation by the male partner. Vaginal orgasm is due to deep pressure stimulation of the uterovaginal plexuses of nerves placed in the walls of the vagina. Clitoral orgasm may result from the excitation of these plexuses via tactile stimulation of the organ. It is a copiously innervated organ for its size.

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1 mons pubis 2 clitoris 3 labium majus 4 urethra 5 labium minus 6 introitus 7 vaginal mucosa 8 union of labia




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