Brain-gut peptides

Peptide hormones were originally described in the gut and in endocrine organs associated with the gut. Thus the gut was thought to be the major site of production of peptide hormones. The discovery of secretin and gastrin marked the beginning of gastrointestinal endocrinology. However some peptides were discovered in the brain recently and they were then ascribed the functions of neurotransmission. Substance P, encephalins and endorphins  were discovered as peptidergic neurotransmitter in the brain.

            When vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) originally described to occur is D1 cell for the gut as peptide hormone was found to occur in ganglioneroblastona, phaeochromocytomas and other neural tumours, it became obvious that peptides thought to be mainly found in the gut could exist in nerve cells. This finding only served to lighten the no longer acceptable Unitarian ontogenetic theory of APUD cells as being derived from neural elements proposed originally by Pearse and his associate served to strengthen the concept of paraneurons of Fujita and his associates.

            Substance P thought to be present in the brain as a peptidergic transmitter was found in the gut. It is today known to be produced by EC1 cell of the stomach. Later on hypothalamic hormone somatostatin was also located in gut endocrine cells and the pancreatic D cell; again it was localized in the intestinal D cell.

            Further studies demonstrated the occurrence of gastrin and calcitonin in the anterior pituitary gland. Also calcitonin was discovered in the parvicellular preoptic nucleus and the nucleus infundibularis ventralis (NIV) of the bull frog by immunohistochemistry. This to postulation that calcitonin may act as peptidergic neurotransmitter in the preoptic area of the bull frog bring and as an adenohypophysiotropic enurohormone in the NIV. Very recent studies revealed the co-existence of VIP and H1 demonstrated in intestinal nerves of the rat and pig.




            The following peptides are part of the family of brain-gut peptides.

1)                                                    Arginine vasotocin

2)                                                    Lutropin releasing hormone

3)                                                    Arginine vastocin

4)                                                    Arginnie vasopressin

5)                                                    Hypothalamic release factors (RFS)

6)                                                    Hypothalamic release inhibitory factors (RIFs)

7)                                                    Follicle stimulating hormone

8)                                                    Leutinizing hormone

9)                                                    Thyroid stimulating hormone

10)                                                  Growth hormone

11)                                                  Pinealocyte stimulating hormone

12)                                                  β-endorphin

13)                                                  Andrenocorticotrophic hormone

14)                                                  Calcitonin

15)                                                  Gastrin

16)                                                  Pre-met-encephalin

17)                                                  Pre-Leu-enkephalin

18)                                                  Bombesin

19)                                                  Leu-enkephalin

20)                                                  Insulin

21)                                                  Glucagons

22)                                                  Somatostatin

23)                                                  Pancreatic pohypeptide

24)                                                  Gastrin 17

25)                                                  a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone

26)                                                  Enkephalin

27)                                                  Substance P

28)                                                  Motilin

29)                                                  Glicentin

30)                                                  Secretin

31)                                                  Cholectstokinin (CCK)

32)                                                  Gastrin inhibitory peptide

33)                                                  Neurotensin

34)                                                  Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)

35)                                                  Porcine intestinal heptacosa peptide (PH1)

36)                                                  Gastrin 34

37)                                                  C-terminal gastrin



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