Physiology of autonomic nervous system

 

The autonomic nervous system consist of

The systems are controlled and perform their actions through receptors by which neurotransmitters act on target cells or end organs

Neural control of autonomic nervous system

Medullary, pontine and mesencephalic control of autonomic nervous system

It controls heart rate, arterial pressure and respiratory rates

They are found along the reticular formation, course of tractus solitarius and also in many special nuclei. The control the following

Function of autonomic nervous system

Organ

Effect of sympathetic stimulation

Effect of parasympathetic stimulation

Eye

 

 

   Pupil

Dilated

Constricted

   Ciliary muscle

Slight relaxation (far vision)

Constricted (near vision)

Glands

Vasoconstriction and slight secretion

Stimulation of copious secretion (containing many enzymes for enzyme-secreting glands)

   Nasal

 

 

   Lacrimal

 

 

   Parotid

 

 

   Submandibular

 

 

   Gastric

 

 

   Pancreatic

 

 

   Sweat glands

Copious sweating (cholinergic)

Sweating on palms of hands

   Apocrine glands

Thick, odoriferous secretion

None

Blood vessels

Most often constricted

Most often little or no effect

Heart

 

 

   Muscle

Increased rate

Slowed rate

   Coronaries

Increased rate of contraction

Decreased force of contraction (especially of atria)

Lungs

 

 

   Bronchi

Dilated

Constricted

Blood vessels

Mildly constricted

?Dilated

Gut

 

 

   Lumen

Decreased peristalsis and tone

Increased peristalsis and tone

   Sphincter

Increased tone (most times)

Relaxed (most times)

Liver

Glucose released

Slight glycogen synthesis

Gallbladder and bile ducts

Relaxed

Contracted

Kidney

Decreased output and rennin secretion

None

Bladder

 

 

   Detrusor

Relaxed (slight)

Contracted

   Trigone

Contracted

Relaxed

Penis

Ejaculation

Erection

Systemic arterioles

 

 

Abdominal viscera

Constricted

None

Muscle

Constricted (adrenergic alpha)

None

 

Dilated (Adrenergic B2)

 

 

Dilated (cholinergic)

 

Skin

Constricted

None

Blood

 

 

Coagulation

Increased

None

Glucose

Increased

None

ngue

 

Increased

None

Basal metabolism

Increased up to 100%

None

Adrenal medullary secretion

Imcreased

None

Mental activity

Increased

None

Piloerector muscles

Contracted

None

Skeletal muscle

Increased glycogenolysis

None

 

Increased strength

 

Fat cells

Lipolysis

None

Brainstem Thalamus Forebrain Medulla Midbrain Pons
Temporal lobe Basal ganglia Epithalamus Cerebral operculum Remove operculum Wall of lateral ventricle 1
Wall of lateral ventricle 2 Wall of lateral ventricle 3 Lateral ventricle 1 Lateral ventricle 2 Base Rhomboid fossa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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