Histopharmacology of cardiac muscle


Many drugs act on the myocardium and cause it to beat faster or stronger, or the contrary. Adenergic drugs are used to cause increase in rate and strength of contraction. They act either selectively or in combination on α and β receptors. The drugs include catecholamines of which the most important are epinephrine, norepinephrine, isoprenaline, dopamine, dobutamine and dopexamine.

Atropine,  a popular anticholinergic drug can also increase heart rate by blocking cholinergic effect of bradycardia. Vasovagal attack also called primary shock occurs when there is an overwhelming cholinergic action on the heart causing sudden hypotension and bradycardia.



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Electronic School of Medicine
Creator: Oluwole Ogunranti


Cardiac muscle explanatory video






   Smooth muscle

   Striated muscle

   Cardiac muscle

Gross anatomy
Organ integration
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Smooth muscle      

Striated muscle      

Cardiac muscle      


Smooth muscle      

Striated muscle    

Cardiac muscle      

Chemical Pathology

Anatomical Pathology




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