Pharmacology of eye

 

Infections of eye: The following are antibiotics used topically to deal with infections of eye in form of eye drops or ointments.

Ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, gentamycin, framycetin, fusidic acid, chloramphenicol. Steroids are also put in the preparations. s

For chlamydial conjunctivitis, endemic trachoma and neonatal ophthalmia can be treated by systemic or oral systemic erythromycin and also by topical tetracyclines.

Steroids: are used in the eye such as such as hydrocortisone or prednisolone. Topical steroids are contraindicated in herpetic keratitis.

Cholinergic drugs: Such as atropine and epinephrine can be used to cause mydriasis which leads to raised intraocular pressure in eyes already predisposed to closed or narrow angle glaucoma. In this, iris which is dilated blocks the drainage of intraocular fluids from the angle of the anterior chamber. This  may lead to attack of glaucoma. Since it paralyses the ciliary muscle, the eye is accommodated to see distant vision. It also causes differing sizes and response of the pupil. Tropicamide and cyclopentolate are used for mydriasis and cycloplegia. Also homatropine can be used for mydriasis but its slower than the drugs above.

Miotic and anti-glaucoma drugs: these include acetazolamide, pilocarpine and timolol

Local anesthetic: includes tetracaine

 

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