Surface anatomy & markings

 

UPPER EXTREMITY

1 sternal angle (T4/5) 2 xiphoid process (T9) 3 suprasternal notch (T2/3) 1 pectoralis major2 rectus abdominis 3 deltoid  4 triceps brachii 5 brachioradialis 6 biceps brachii 7 external oblique muscle 1 anterior axillary foldposterior axillary fold 3 armpit (floor of axilla) 1 brachioradialis 2 triceps brachii 3 Extensor carpi radialis longus 4 cephalic vein/biceps brachii 5 deltoid/ 6 pectoralis major 7 external oblique muscle of abdomen 8 trapezius
1 areola 2 nipple 1 nipple 1 cubital fossa 2 medial compartment of forearm 1 wrist 2 cubital fossa
1 flexor carpi radialis 2 palmaris longus 3 flexor digitorum superficialis 4 flexor carpi ulnaris 1 thenar eminence 2 hypothenar eminence 1 dorsum of hand 2 anatomical snuffbox 3 ulnar head 1 inferior angle of scapula 2 scapula 3 medial epicondyle 4 lateral epicondyle  5 olecranon
   
Cephalic vein and tributaries 1 superior angle of scapula (T2) 2 spine of scapula 3 inferior angle of scapula

1 pectoral region 2 axilla

 
1 tendons of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis 2 tendon of extensor pollicis longuss
   
       
Tributaries of the cephalic vein in the posterior aspect of upper extremity 1 superior angle of scapula (T2) 2 spine of scapula 3 inferior angle of scapula    
       

LOWER EXTREMITY

1 gluteus maximus, biceps femoris 3 vastus lateralis 4 gastrocnemius 1 rectus femoris 2 vastus intermedius 3 vastus lateralis 5 vastus medialis 1 gluteus maximus 2 vastus lateralis 3 biceps femoris 4 fibularis longus 5 fibularis brevis 6 patella

1 quadriceps femoris 2 semitendinosus and sartorius tendons 3 patella 4 quadriceps femoris 5 patellar ligament


1 tensor fasciae latae 2 rectus femoris 3 tibialis posterior tendon


1 gluteus maximus 2 vastus lateralis 3 semimembranosus 4 biceps femoris tendon

 

 

THORAX

11sternal angle (T4/5) 2 ixiphoid process (T9) 3 suprasternal notch (T2/3) Pleura reaches 12th rib at lateral border of erector spinae, 10th rib at midaxillary line and 8th rib at midclavicular line. The lung reaches 10th rib at lateral border of erector spinae, 8th rib at midaxillary line. Precordium from apex-5th interspace medial to midclavicular line to right upper border 2nd interspace to right of sternum to 2nd interspace to left of sternum to 6th chondrosternal junction to the left of sternum. Heart valves are marked in red as TMAP (PAMT)

1 costomediastinal recess 2 cardiac notch 3 costodiaphragmatic recess Click to open Chest veins

 

ABDOMEN

1 external oblique muscle 2 rectus abdominis 1 hypochrondriac (r,l) 2 lumbar  (flank-r, l)) 3 paraumbilical  4 Iliac (iliac fossa, r, l)) 5 suprapubic (hypogastric) 6 epigastric 7 left lateral line or midclavicular line 8 transpyloric plane (L1) 9 subcostal plane 10 transtubercular plane (L5) Surface projection of some abdominal viscera:
1 liver 2 spleen 3 duodenum 4 left kidney 5 pancreas
1 mons pubis 2 clitoris 3 labium majus 4 labium minus 5 introitus 6 anus 1 mons pubis 2 clitoris 3 labium majus 4 urethra 5 labium minus 6 introitus 7 vaginal mucosa 8 union of labia 1 hip 2 buttock 3 gluteal region 4 low back 5 anus 6 vulva
 
1 shaft of penis 2 corona glandis 3 glans penis 4 root of penis 5 testis in scrotum 6 mons pubis 1 external oblique muscle  

 

HEAD AND NECK

1 occipitofrontalis 2 levator labii superioris alaeque nasi 3 orbicularis oculi 4 orbicularis oris 5 mentalis 6 depressor anguli oris 7 platysma

1 sternocleidomastoid 2 trapezius

Face1: 1 supratrochlear 2 supraorbital  3  palpebral branch of lacrimal 4 posterior ethmoidal , infratrochlear  5  external nasal
Face 2: 1 Zygomaticotemporal nerve 2 Zygomaticofacial nerve 3 Infraorbital nerve Face 3: Roll over mouse: 1 auriculotemporal 2 buccal 3 mental 1 external oblique muscle of abdomen 2 erector spinae 3 gluteus maximus 5 triceps brachii

Tongue: 1 tongue 2 palatopharyngeal arch 3 palatine tonsil 4 palatoglossal arch Face myology: 1 occipitofrontalis 2 orbicularis oculi 3 risorius 4 zygomaticus major et zygomaticus minor 5 orbicularis oris  6 depressor anguli oris 7 buccinator 8 procerus 9 platysma Neck veins

 

 

 

Surface areas by regions

Head and Neck

Abdomen

Chest

Upper Limb

Lower Limb

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Creator: Oluwole Ogunranti