Clinical examination of thyroid gland. Parathyroid is embedded in thyroid gland

Parathyroid gland

Clinical examination of thyroid-parathyroid glands

Multiple endocrine neoplasia I affects the parathyroid gland  and of course other glands such as those which are part of the endocrine APUD system causing neoplasia of the parenchyma. The gene for MEN-1 is on chromosome 11q13 and it is a tumor suppressor gene. Multiple endocrine neoplasia -2 (MEN-2 syndrome) is caused by mutations in tyrosine kinase receptor RET which is placed on chromosome 10q. MEN 1 and 2 lead to hyperparathyroidism.

There may also be non-MEN parathyroid adenoma. There is also a malignant transformation of the gland causing parathyroid carcinoma.

Hyperparathyroidism syndromes

  • Primary hyperparathyrodism

    • MEN-1

    • MEN-2

    • Familial hypercalcuric hypercalcemia

  • Secondary hyperparathyroidism syndromes

    • Renal failure

Hypoparathyroidism

  • Surgical extirpation

  • Congenital absence of parathyroid gland

  • Idiopathic hypoparathyrodism

  • Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. This condition is caused by mutation in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE)

 

 

 


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