Phonocardiographic tracing


3rd heart sound video demonstrating the 3rd heart sound from the back though auscultation
 
4th heart sound video

 


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Heart sound


Heart murmurs for beginners

       

 

 

Fourth heart sound

This atrial sound is best heard in the apex of mitral area. In normal individuals it is not heard
but it may be heard in conditions like severe
hypertension, and sometimes myocardial infarction,
aortic stenosis and cardiomyopathies. It is caused by resistance to ventricular infilling when the
atria contract. This may occur in hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy and in heart block.

 

 

 

 

 

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Creator: Oluwole Ogunranti