Adrenal gland

 

This gland consists of two parts- an inner medulla called adrenal medulla that secretes catecholamines called epinephrine and norepinephrine.and an outer cortex which secretes steroid hormones that consists of glucocorticoids (cortisol and corticosterone). It also produces mineralocorticoids  which include aldosterone that affects sodium and potassium metabolism and excretion. Sex steroids are also produced in the adrenal cortex which affects secondary sexual characteristics. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) is a hormone of the anterior pituitary which causes the release of adrenal steroids. ACTH itself is in turn under the control of corticocotropin release factor or corticoliberin produced in the hypothalamus.

 

  • Serum sodium

  • Serum potassium

  • Plasma cortisol: Cortisol is the most potent of all the glucocortcoids.

  • Plasma aldosterone

  • Plasma ACTH level

  • ACTH stimulation test

  • Aldosterone stimulation test

  • Dexamethasone suppression test

  • Aldosterone suppression test or desoxycorticosterone test

  • CRH test

  • Insulin tolerance test

Adrenal medulla

Urine

  • Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) in 24 hour urine

  • Catecholamines in 24 hour urine

  • Metanephrine in 24 hour urine


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