Several genes are now known to direct embryogenesis. Some of these include homeobox genes which have been the most studies. On the Drosophila there are 8 homeobox genes which specify the structures which develop on each body segments. They are located on two regions on Drosophila chromosomes 3. There are a  total of 38 genes which have homeoboxes in mammals  These have a higher degree of similarity with Drosophila homeobox genes. These genes are called Hox in murine and HOX in human genome. They found in 4 clusters  as follows

  • A in mouse chromosome 11 and human chromosome 7

  • B Mouse chromosome 11 and human chromosome 17

  • C mouse chromosome 2 and human chromosome 2

  • D mouse chromosome 2 and human chromosome 2

The Hox genes  number from 1 to 13. Hox a-6, Hox b-6 and Hox c-6  are referred to as paralogous group

There are non homeobox genes which take part in development. They include Msx, Mox, Dix, Otx, Cax, Emx, Mox, DIc , Otx, Cax, Emx Goosecoid etc

Pax genes are a total of 9 genes . It is associated in the human with genetic diseases such as Waardenburg’s syndrome.



















Cell types

Organ integration



Chemical Pathology

Molecular biology


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