Insulin

 

Gastrin

Insulin Produced by B cells of the pancreas. Its principal actions are as follows:

 Insulin Action on Tissues

1)                                                      Increased glucose entry

2)                                                      Increased fatty acid synthesis

3)                                                      Increased glycerol phosphate synthesis

4)                                                      Increased triglyceride deposition

5)                                                      Activation of lipoprotein lipase

6)                                                      Inhibition of hormone sensitive lipase.

7)                                                      Increased potassium uptake.

Muscle

1)                                                      Increased glucose entry

2)                                                      Increased glucose synthesis

3)                                                      Increased amino acid uptake

4)                                                      Increased protein synthesis in ribosomes

5)                                                      Decreased protein catabolism

6)                                                      Decreased release of gluconeogenetic amino acids.

7)                                                      Increased ketone uptake

8)                                                      Increased potassium uptake

Of glucagons related peptides (GLP) GLP, glocagon glicentir are found in a l and Aentero endocrine cells. Glucagons and insulin have been reported to occur in the brain. Metz and moldenhauer, (1985) suggest that glucagons may also be a neurotransmitter.

Liver

1)                                                      Decreased cyclic Amp

2)                                                      Decreased ketogenesis

3)                                                      Increased protein synthesis

4)                                                      Increased lipid synthesis

5)                                                     Decreased glucose output due to decreased gluconeognesis and increased glycogen synthesis

It shuld be noted that insulin was originally a gut hormone with open type entero-endocrine morphology like other GEP endocrine cells phytogenetically. Thus mullu have insulin like prpducing cells of the hepatopancreas of the gut (Kasinathan 1963, 1964, Gomih and Grillo 1976, Plisetskaya et al 1978). Cephalochordates have also been shown to possess insulin secreting cells. Also amphioxus possess insulin secreting cells in the gut.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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