Growth hormone

 

Also called somatotropic hormone or somatotropin. This polypeptide hormone secreted by acidophils of the anterior pituitary gland. It is a single chain with 191 amino acids. It stimulates amino aid uptake in muscles and has anti-insulin action. it also increases protein synthesis in many tissues and increases free fatty acid concentration in blood together with raising blood glucose levels. It also has the following physiological actions

bullet It promotes tissue deposition of protein
bullet It increases nuclear transcription from DNA to RNA
bullet It has ketogenic effect on tissues  by release of acetic acid thereby causing ketosis
bullet It decreases carbohydrate utilization
bullet It enhances fat utilization for energy
bullet It decreases the catabolism of protein and amino acids
bullet It increases RNA translation  and protein synthesis
bullet It stimulates growth of cartilage and bone
bullet It increases cell membrane transport of amino acids

Arginine tolerance test is used to test the secretory capacity of growth hormone. When 500 mg of arginine potassium chloride per kilogram body weight is infused intravenously concentration of growth hormone will rise to 5 ng/ml.

 

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