Liver

 

  


Liver explanatory video

The liver is invested in a capsule which is fibrous and thin and it is disposed into lobules called hepatic lobules.

            Hepatic lobules contain liver cell or hepatocytes arranged in sheets rather than cords.  These sheets  or plates are called hepatic laminae.  The lobules are polyhedral in structure and a little less than 1 mm in diameter.  Their center contains the central veins which are tributaries of the hepatic veins which finally drain into the inferior vena cava.  Their periphery contains hepatic areas which have the so called portal triad containing

1.                  hepatic artery

2.                  portal vein and

3.                  bile duct

A portal lobule is different from a hepatic lobule.  The portal lobule is the triangular area which connects the adjacent lobules by an imaginary line between their central veins.  The portal lobule represent the region drained by one bile duct of portal area.  A portal lobule is a physiological and pathological entity, while a hepatic lobule is of morphological interest.

      Rows of cells are seen radiating from the central vain of hepatic lobules on a transverse section of the liver.  These are sections of he hepatic laminae.  The rows are separated by intervening sinusoids which are lined by endothelial cells of which Kupffer cells (members of the reticuloendothelial system) are prominent.  These sinusoids interconnects the central canal with the portal area and therefore transfers blood from the portal veins to the central veins.  The central veins area, called centrilobular area represents the farthest away from oxygenated blood in the liver and therefore are the first to be affected in any ischemic (low blood oxygen) conditions of the liver, whereas the periportal (around the portal vein) areas will be the last to be affected by any ischemic affectation of the liver.

Liver venous drainage through the portal triad to the central vein     

Liver arterial supply and drainage to the central vein

 

 

 

Click here for practical, scan or tissue diagnosis   gross   embryology
histophysiology  histochemistry  histopathology  histopharmacology

  Electronic School of Medicine
Creator: Oluwole Ogunranti

 

Liver histology video         Double click for full screen

     

 

 

 

 

 

 
Liver and stomach bed Anterior liver Visceral surface liver Superior liver
Inferior liver Posterior liver Visceral surface liver Fresh liver-diaphragmatic surface
Fresh liver-diaphragmatic surface Fixed liver- diaphragmatic surface Postportem liver-diaphragmatic surface Postportem-liver in greater sac
Diagram of functional lobes Diagram of functional lobes Liver and costal margin Diagram- liver, stomach erc

 

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Portal hypertension
Portocaval anastomoses
Portosystemic obstruction
Portal venogram

Hepatic encephalopathy
Portosystemic shunt

Schistosomiasis

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