Endocrine (cellular) gland



There are large organ endocrine glands such as the adrenal gland, pituitary gland, pineal gland, parathyroid gland, thyroid, islets of Langerhans, testis or ovary and also single cell endocrine glands such as argentaffin cells of the gastrointestinal tract. These are also called APUD or gastroenteropancreatic endocrine (GEP) cells. The modes of secretion of the endocrine cell glands can be utilized in their classification. Their secretions are basally directed for both closed and open cells for the secretions are directed into blood vessels. Their physiological modes of secretions are unique. They also have circumnuclear golgi apparatus and sometimes apical sensors by which they can taste their immediate environment. They are numerous in the gut where they are called GEP cells and in other mucosae of the respiratory system, reproductive and renal systems.

There are also simple tissue glands such as glands of Brunner, crypts of Lieberkuhn etc


Basal secretion APUD (endocrine) cell


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