Paraneuron

 

  

Paraneurons are those cells that are morphologically similar to neurons although they may not be classified as neurons. Under the light microscope, these cells are less basophilic than other epithelial cells. Under the transmission electron microscope they possess considerable ribosomes which are the ultrastructural equivalent of the Nissl substances and their Gogli apparatus are numerous and circumnuclear in position. They produce most of the recently classified brain-gut peptides in non neural tissues.

          They release their contained secretions which are the same classes of neurotransmitters described above for neurons, in a variety of fashion.  Synpatocrinia, paracrinia, ventriculocrinia, lymphocrinia, endocrinia. Initially it was thought that a neuron or paraneuron released just one neurotransmitter. It has not been shown that it is possible for one neuron/paraneuron to release more than one neurotransmitter at the same time.  Paraneuromas are neoplastic paraneurons and they can be identified by the selective immunocytochemistry for their usual cellular secretions although neoplastic secretion may sometimes be inappropriate.

 

Histochemistry                    

Paraneurons can be identified by

1)           presence of abundant neurofilament protein as in neurons.

2)           Specific ultrastructural features of the granules produced by the cell

3)           Immune ocytochemistry

4)           Neuron specific enolase

5)           Brain derived tubulin, showing the affinity of paraneurons with neurons

6)           Many paraneurons also show the histochemical characteristics of APUD system.

 

List of paraneurons

Adrenomedullary cells, paraganglion cell, adrenergic interneuron, cartotid body,  chief cell, parafollicular or C cell, parathyroid cell, adenohypophyseal cells, mast cell, melanocyte, pinealocyte, pancreatic islet cells, gastro-enteric endocrine cells, bronchial endocrine cells, urethral and prostatic endocrine cells, gustatory cell in taste bud, Merkel cell and some mechanoreceptor cells, hair cells of inner ear and lateral line organ, retinal cone and rod, neurosecretory cells, typical neurons.

 

List of paraneurons

1. Adrenomedullary cells
2. Paraganglion cell
3. Adrenergic interneuron
4.
Carotid body chief cell
5.
Parafollicular cell
6.
Parathyroid cell
7.
Adenohypophyseal cells
8.
Mast cell
9.
Melanocyte
10.
Pinealocyte
11.
Pancreatic islet cells
12.
Gastro-enteric endocrine cells
13.
Bronchial endocrine cells
14.
Urethral and prostatic endocrine cells
15.
Gustatory cell in taste bud
16.
Merkel and some mechanoreceptor cells
17. Hair cells of inner ear and lateral line organ
18.
Retinal cone and rod
19. Neurosecretory cells
20.
Typical neurons

 

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