Golgi apparatus




Variously described as complex, apparatus and body, the Golgi bodies were first described by Camillo Golgi in 1898 as an extension of the intracytoplasmic membranous vacuolar system of the endoplasmic reticulum.  It is also said to arise from the endoplasmic reticulum and it consists of a unit membrane like the endoplasmic reticulum which either resembles the unit membrane of the plasma membrane or that of the nuclear membrane.  Its saccules orientate themselves in different shapes and sizes and its surface is smooth.  It is absent in red blood cells and of considerable number in actively secreting cells, neurons and paraneurons.  It consist of flattened sacs called cisternae, large vacuoles and smaller vesicles.

The Golgi are responsible for assemblage and packaging of secretory materials in cells.  They obtain their proteinaceous components from rough endoplasmic reticulum, aid the synthesis of carbohydrates, and then conjugate the large protein substances and carbohydrates such as glycoproteins in the sacs after which the products appear first in small vesicles and then as granules which are exported outside the cell.




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