Gut rotation video -Interactive video text


Gut development video    -Interactive video text

The midgut begins from the hepatopancreatic diverticulum to the anterior 2/3 of the transverse colon. In the first trimester of pregnancy the developing midgut enters the extra embryonic coelom remaining in the umbilicus. This is therefore called physiological herniation of the midgut. The proximal part of the midgut is placed on the right of the coelom while the distal part is placed on the left. The vitellointestinal duct which is the remains of the connection between the developing midgut and the yolk sac is attached to the mid point of the midgut.

Rotation now occurs in the midgut within the umbilicus so that the distal part, which is placed on the left now turns to the right and vice versa through 180o.

The cecum and the appendix develops within the hernia. They are part of the distal aspect of the midgut. From the left after rotation they move to the right. Herniation is caused by increase in size of the liver and kidney so that the developing gut has no longer any space within the abdomen and then enters the umbilicus through simple pressure differences.

As the liver and the kidney decrease in size the midgut now returns into the abdomen with the caecum and appendix being placed just below the liver. This happens at the 3rd month of pregnancy immediately after the return the descending colon fuses with the parietal peritoneum of the posterior abdominal wall and becomes retroperitoneal. As development continues the ascending colon lies at its adult position so that the appendix and cecum are placed in the right iliac fossa. The appendix is initially at the apex of the caecum at birth. After birth it begins to move upwards to the posterior medial aspect of the cecum.





Oluwole Ogunranti 

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