Embryology Theory     Search
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Embryology Practical
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Ultrasound embryology
Congenital anomalies
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Eye Right lung Heart Left lung Liver Spleen Right kidney Stomach Left kidney Small intestine Urinary bladder Appendix Penis Sexual arousal physiology Nose Mouth Heart Heart Tibia Femur Humerus Ulna Scapula Humerus Right hip joint Skin Left knee joint Ribs Skin Skin Cervical vertebrae Clavicle Left ankle joint Tarsus Left metatarsus Phalanges of left hand Right tarsus Right metatarsus Right phalanges of foot Right phalanges of hand Right metatarsus Skin Skin Right glenohumeral joint Left glenohumeral joint Mandible Brow Large intestine MR EMBRYOLOGY

 

Early events                   

    Cloning in adult cells

    Polar body

    Oogenesis

    Oogonium
    Oocyte

        Primary oocyte
        Secondary oocyte
    Ovulation
    Ovum 

    Spermatogenesis

    Spermatogonium
    Primary spermatocyte
    Secondary
   
spermatocyte

    Sperm transport

    Death of gamete

    Failure of deutoplasm

    Mitosis
   
Meiosis
   
Failure of resumption of
   
meiosis

    Polyspermy

  Pronculeus

Fertilization

   In vitro fertilization

Chromosome
  Barr body
  Down's syndrome
  Turner's syndrome
 
Klinefelter's syndrome
 
Triple X syndrome
 
XYY syndrome

Karyotype
Cytogenetics

Egg

Zygote

Genetics (Inheritance)

Mendelian inheritance

  Genetic diseases
 
1st law of Mendel

  2nd law of Mendel

  Trait
  Heterozygous
 
Homozygous

  Autosomal dominant
 
inheritance

  Autosomal recessive
 
inheritance

  Sex linked inheritance

  X linked dominance

  X linked recessive

  Y linked inheritance

  Partial sex linkage
  Penetrance
 
Heritability
  Pedigree

  Expressivity
     Acatalasia
    
Phenylketonuria
    
Albinism

Multifactorial inheritance

Intermediate inheritance

Embryogenes
Zygote anomalies

    Chromosome number
   
anomalies

    Isochromosome

    Inversion

    Monosomy

    Trisomy

    Non-disjunction

    Deletion

    Ring chromosome

    Translocation

Chromosome set anomalies

    Polyploidy

    Aneuploidy

 

Embryogenesis

Early embryogenesis

    Embryo cleavage

    Morula

    Blastocele

    Blastocyst

    Blastomeres

    Inner cell mass

    Outer cell mass

Trophoblast

    Cytotrophoblast

    Syncytiotrophoblast

Implantation

Fetal membranes
   Amnion
  
Chorion

Early anomalies

 

Pre embryo

Embryo   

Conceptus

Bilaminar embryo

    Ectoderm

    Endoderm

 

Late embryogenesis

Organogenesis

Amniotic cavity

    Germ disc

    Germ layers

    Medullary plate

    Embryonic disc

Oropharyngeal membrane

Gastrulation

Organisation

    Primitive streak

    Primitive node

    Trilaminar embryo

    Paraxial mesoderm

Mesoderm
    Lateral plate mesoderm

    Intermediate cell mass

    Somatopleuric
   
mesoderm

    Splanchnopleuric
   
mesoderm

    Mesenchyme
    Suprarenal gland

Somites

    Sclerotome

    Myotome

    Dermatome

Embryo

    Embryo folding

    Embryo growth

    Embryo growth factors

Celom

    Intraembryonic celom

    Extra embryonic celom

Notochord

Primary yolk sac

Secondary yolk sac

Allantois

Connecting stalk

Umbilical cord
     False knot

Septum transversum

Dorsal mesentery

Late anomalies

Congenital anomalies and genetic diseases

Congenital anomalies

Genetic conditions

Placenta

  Normal placenta

  Placental circumvallata

  Placenta bipartita

  Placenta succenturiata

  Placenta previa

  Placenta hemangioma

  Placenta fenestra

  Placenta duplex

  Battledore placenta

Fetus

   Fetal growth
   Fetal growth factors

 

Development of cardiovascular system

Fetal circulation

Heart

     Cardiogenic area   

     Pericardium

    Heart interior

    Atrium

    Foramen ovale
   
Ventricle

    Bulbus cordis

    Truncus arteriosus

    Ductus arteriosus

    Septum primum

    Septum secundum

    Ostium primum

    Ostium secundum

    Sinus venosus

    Endocardial cushion

 

  Anomalies of the heart

    Atrial septal defect
   
Biloculare

    Ventricular septal defect

    Ostium primum defect
   
Triloculare

    Ostium secundum
   
defect

    Patent ductus arteriosus

    Ebstein's anomaly

    Ectopia cordis

    Eisenmenger's complex
    Tetralogy of Fallot

    Persistent foramen ovale

    Persistent truncus
  
 arteriosus
   
Hypoplastic left heart
   
syndrome
    
Hypoplastic right
   
heart syndrome
    
Cardiac fibroma
    
Aortic interruption
    
Aortic aneurysm
    
Anomalous left
   
pulmonary artery
    
Anomalous left coronary
   
artery

 Anomalies of heart
   valves

    Bicuspid aortic valve

    Tricuspid regurgitation
   
Tricuspid stenosis

    Mitral stenosis
   
Mitral incompetence

    Aortic stenosis

    Aortic regurgitation
   
Pulmonary stenosis
   
Pulmonary regurgitation

    Quadricuspid valve

More on anomalies of heart

 

Arteries

    Hematopoesis

    Early vessels

    Lymphatics
  Blood cell genealogy

      Red blood cell
      Neutrophil

      Eosinophil

      Basophil

      Lymphocyte

      Monocyte

      Platelet

    Aorta
    Dorsal aorta
   
Coarctation of aorta
   
Congenital anomalies of
   
aorta

    Arch of aorta
    Arch of aorta anomalies
   
Aorticopulmonary
   
window

    Aortic sac
    Arch 1
    Arch 2
    Arch 3
    Arch 4
    Arch 5
    Arch 6
    Arterial arches
   
malformations

    Interrupted aortic arch
   
syndrome

    Pulmonary trunk
    Pulmonary arteries
    Brachiocephalic trunk
    Common carotid artery
    Right subclavian artery

    External carotid artery
    Internal carotid artery
    Segmental arteries

    Lateral splanchnic artery

    Ventral splanchnic
   
arteries

    Hemophilia

 

Veins

    Great veins

       Sinus venosus

       Inferior vena cava
   
Head and neck veins

        Common cardinal vein

        Anterior cardinal veins

        Posterior cardinal
       
 veins

        Left brachiocephalic vein

        Left external jugular vein

        Left subclavian vein

        Superior vena cava

        Persistent right superior
       
vena cava

    Body veins

        Subcardinal veins

        Supracardinal veins

    Visceral veins

        Coronary sinus

        Vitelline veins

        Umbilical veins

        Ductus venosus

        Right brachiocephalic
       
vein

    Total or partial
   
anomalous pulmonary
   
venous drainage

    Venous malformations

 

 

Respiratory system

Trachea

Trachea anomalies

Larynx

Laryngeal anomalies

Bronchi

Lungs

Lungs anomalies

Cleft nose
Pleuroperitoneal canal

Diaphragm
Foramen of Bochdalek

 

Pharynx

 

Pharyngeal arches

Arch 1

    Arch 1 cartilage
       Meckel's cartilage

    Arch 1 nerve

    Arch 1 muscle

    Arch 1 anomalies

  Arch 2

    Arch 2 cartilages

    Arch 2 muscles

    Arch 2 nerves

    Arch 2 anomalies
  Arch 3

    Arch 3 cartilage

    Arch 3 nerve

    Arch 3 muscles

    Arch 3 anomalies

  Arch 4

    Arch 4 muscles

    Arch 4 nerve

    Arch 4 cartilage

    Arch 4 anomalies

  Arch 5

  Arch 6

    Arch 6 muscles

    Arch 6 nerve

    Arch 6 cartilage

    Arch 6 anomalies

  Cranial arches

        Premandibular
       
mesenchyme

        Maxillomandibular
       
mesenchyme

  Pharyngeal arch
   
muscles

  Pharyngeal arch malformations

  Pharyngeal arch nerves

  Pharyngeal cartilages

 Pharyngeal malformations

Caudal arches 

 

Pharyngeal clefts

Pharyngeal clefts anomalies

    Pharyngeal cleft 1

    Pharyngeal cleft 1
   
anomalies

    Pinna
   
Otocephaly
    Anotia

    Pharyngeal cleft 2

    Pharyngeal cleft 2
   
anomalies

    Pharyngeal cleft 3

    Pharyngeal cleft 3
   
anomalies

    Pharyngeal cleft 4

    Pharyngeal cleft 4
   
anomalies

Pharyngeal membranes

Pharyngeal membranes anomalies

Pharyngeal pouches

    Pharyngeal pouch 1

    Pharyngeal pouch 2

    Pharyngeal pouch 3

    Pharyngeal pouch 4

    Caudal pharyngeal
   
complex

    Pharyngeal pouches anomalies

    Caudal pharyngeal
   
complex anomalies

    Inferior parathyroid gland

    Lingual thyroid gland

    Parathyroid gland

    Parathyroid gland
   
anomalies

    Palatine tonsil

    Accessory thymic
   
tissues

    Cervical sinus

    Branchial fistula

    Brachial cyst

    Piriformsinus fistula

    DiGeorge syndrome

    Ectopic inferior
   
parathyroid glands

    Mandibular cleft

    Mediastinal parathyroid
   
gland

    Thymus

    Thymus anomalies

    Thyroglossal cyst/fistula

    Thyroid gland

    Thyroid gland anomalies

    Tongue

    Tongue anomalies

    Tuberculum impar

    Tympanic membrane

    Ultimobranchial gland

    Pharyngeal pouch 1
   
anomalies

    Pharyngeal pouch 2
   
anomalies

    Pharyngeal pouch 3
   
anomalies

    Pharyngeal pouch 4
   
anomalies

    Retrosternal goiter

    Superior parathyroid
   
gland

    Suprahyoid thyroglossal
   
cyst

    Thymic parathyroid
   
gland

    Variations in thymic
   
structure

 Pharyngeal membrane

 

 

Gastrointestinal system

Gastrointestinal anomalies

    Foregut

        Stomatodaeum
        Mouth cavity
       
Salivary gland
       
Mouth cavity ectoderm

       
Teeth

        Esophagus
        Foregut anomalies

    Midgut

        Stomach

        Ventral mesogastrium

        Dorsal mesogastrium

        Gastroschisis

        Duodenum

        Liver

        Liver anomalies

        Midgut anomalies

        Falciform ligament

        Pancreas

        Pancreas anomalies

        Gallbladder

        Gallbladder
       
anomalies

    Hindgut
      
Rectum

       Hindgut anomalies

       Proctodaeum
       Anus   

       Anus anomalies

Spleen

 

Development of renal system

Urogenital ridge

Mesonephric ridge

Kidney

Kidney anomalies
Pelvic kidney
Polycystic kidney

Mesonephric duct

Mesonephric tubules

Mesonephros

Metanephric duct

Metanephros

Nephrogenic cord

Pronephros

Renal system anomalies

Urachus

Urachus anomalies

Urorectal septum

Ureter

Ureter anomalies

Ureteric bud

Ureteric cap

Urinary bladder

Urinary bladder anomalies

Urogenital sinus

Cloaca

Cloacal anomalies
Suprarenal gland

 

Development of reproductive system
Genital ridge

Gonadal ridge

    Wolffian duct

    Paramesonephric duct

    Mullerian duct

    Mesonephric duct

    Anomalies of
   
reproductive system

    Female reproductive
   
system

        Uterus

        Fallopian tube

        Cervix

        Vestibular glands

        Paraurethral gland

        Paroophoron
        Epoophoron

        Vulva
    Anomalies of female
   
reproductive system

    Male reproductive
   
system

        Seminal colliculus

        Seminal vesicle

        Ductus deferens

        Epididymis

        Urogenital ridge

        Urogenital sinus

        Prostatic utricle

        Prostate gland
       
Efferent ductules

        Paradidymis
        Ejaculatory duct
       
Penis

        Urethra
Gartner's duct

        Endodermal vaginal
       
plate

        Vagina
        Absence of vagina
 

Gonads
Sex cords
Germ cell
    Female gonad
        Oogonium
        Primary oocyte
        Secondary oocyte
        Ovulation
        Ovum       
   
Ovary

    Descent of ovary
   
Gubernaculum
   
Male gonad

        Spermatogonium
        Primary
       
spermatocyte

        Secondary
       
spermatocyte
       
Spermatids

        Testis
       
Descent of testis

        Cryptorchidism

        Hydrocele

           Infantile hydrocele

           Congenital hydrocele

           Vaginal hydrocele

           Hydrocele of cord


External genitalia

    Genital folds
   
Genital swelling
   
Genital tubercle
   
Mullerian tubercle
   
Anomalies of external
   
genitalia

    Female external
   
genitalia

        Hymen
        Vestibule
       
Clitoris
   
Anomalies of female
   
external genitalia

    Male external genitalia
      
Scrotum
       Penis
    Anomalies of male 
    
external genitalia

 

Face

Face anomalies

Nose and palate

Macrostomia

Micrognathia

Microstomia

Cleft anomalies
   Cleft nose
   Cleft mandible

   Partial cleft palate

   Cleft lip and cleft palate

   Facial clefts

   Hare lip

   Unilateral cleft lip

 

Musculoskeletal system

Bone

Cartilage

Bones anomalies

Viscerocranium

    Cartilaginous
   
viscerocranium

    Membranous
   
viscerocranium

Neurocranium

    Membranous
   
neurocranium

    Chondrocranium

Ossification
Intramembranous
Precartilage

Endochondral

    Carpus

    Clavicle 

    Femur

    Fibula

    Humerus

    Metacarpus

    Metatarsus

    Patella

    Phalanges of foot

    Phalanges of hand

    Radius

    Ribs

    Skull ossification
   
centers

    Sternum

    Tarsus

    Tibia

    Ulna

    Vertebra

    Vertebrae ossification

Skull development
Syndactyly1
Syndactyly2
 

Muscles
Mesenchyme
Sclerotome
Myotome
   Occipital myotomes

Pharyngeal arch
   
muscles
Limb

Limb differentiation
Limb anomalies
  Amelia
  Meromelia
 
Congenital absence of radius
 
Lobster-claw deformities (cleft hand and cleft foot)
 
Polydactyly
 
Brachydactyly
 
Syndactyly
 
Congenital clubfoot

     Talipes equinovarus

     Talipes calcaneovarus

     Talipes calcaneovalgus

     Talipes equinovalgus

  Congenital dislocation  of hip

Development of nervous system

Neuroectoderm

    Neural tube

    Advanced neural tube

        Alar lamina

        Basal lamina

        Floor plate

        Roof plate

        Neural crest

 

        Neural groove

        Neural plate

        Sulcus limitans

        Nervous system
       
anomalies

Brain

    Primary brain vesicles

    Prosencephalon

        Telencephalon

            Cerebral cortex

        Basal ganglia

        Diencephalon
          Pituitary gland

    Mesencephalon

    Midbrain

    Rhombencephalon

    Hindbrain

        Metencephalon

            Cerebellum

            Pons

    Myelencephalon

        Medulla

Cranial nerve ganglia

Brain anomalies

Spinal cord

Spinal cord anomalies
Spina bifida occulta

Spina bifida manifesta

Fiber components

    General somatic afferent
   
(GSA)

    General somatic efferent
   
(GSE)

    General visceral afferent
   
(GVA)

    General visceral efferent
   
(GVE)

    Special somatic afferent
   
(SSA)

    Special visceral afferent
   
(SVA)

    Special visceral efferent
   
(SVE)

Autonomic nervous system

Central nervous system

Development of sense organs

Eye

Eye anomalies
Coloboma
Congenital cataract
Cyclopia
Ptosis
Ear

Ear anomalies
Development of breast
Anomalies of breast

Skin

Skin anomalies
Hair
Nail
Epidermis
Dermis
Sweat gland

Birth

 

 

 

 

Cell Biology

Histology

Embryology
Gross anatomy
Lymphatic drainage
Organ integration
Clinical anatomy

Quiz

Dissector

Physiology

Biochemistry

Pharmacology

Chemical Pathology

Anatomical Pathology

Imaging

Medicine

Surgery

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