ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION

Also called high blood pressure

   
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Symptoms: Dizziness; palpitations; easy fatigability; impotence; epistaxis; hematuria; blurred vision; angina pectoris; dyspnea due cardiac failure; episodic weakness due to transient cerebral ischemia
Special signs: High blood pressure; rise in diastolic pressure for supine to standing position. Hypertensive retinopathy consisting of arteriolar light reflex; arteriovenous crossing defects hemorrhages and exudates.
Special investigations: Blood pressure studies.

SHORT DESCRIPTION:
Essential hypertension is also called idiopathic or primary hypertension. Cause is unknown but it has genetic heritability of 30% with the following genes associated with the condition -renin-angotensin-aldoestrone genes, adnergic receptor genes, vascular factor genes and some metabolic enzyme or receptor genes.

Together with the peripheral resistance, cardic output forms the systemic arterial blood pressure.

Blood pressure  = Cardiac output   x   peripheral resistance

Peripheral resistance  =   Blood pressure/cardiac output

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