Deficiency in hemoglobin in red cell in blood or volume of red cells which carry oxygen to tissues and cells. It may be aplastic (no cell in bone marrow),  hypoplastic (little cell in bone marrow), hyperchromic (high iron content), hypochromic (low iron content), macrocytic (large cell), microcytic (small cell), megaloblastic (pernicious) or hemolytic anemia.

Clinical features of anemia

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Fatigue

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Dyspnea

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Palpitations

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Headache

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Tinnitus

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Anorexia

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Angina in pre-existing ischemic heart disease

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Pallor

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Hyperdynamic circulation

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Cardiomegaly

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Retinal hemorrhage

Types of anemia

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Microcytic anemia - low MCV

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Iron deficiency anemia

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Thalassemia

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Sideroblasic anemia

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Normocytic anemia- normal MCV

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Chronic disease anemia

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Renal failure

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Acute blood loss

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Bone marrow failure

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Pregnancy

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Hemodialysis

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Hypothyroidism

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Macrocytic anemia- high MCV

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Vitamin B12 deficiency

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Foliate deficiency

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Alcohol liver disease

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Myelodysplastic syndrome

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Marrow infiltration by neoplasia

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Antifolate drugs

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Hemolytic anemia- suspect hemolysis if there are

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Reticulocytosis of 2% or more

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Mild macrocytosis

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Low haptoglobin

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High bilirubin

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High urobilinogen

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