Clinical aspect of foot


Talipes refers to club foot. Any affection of the ankle which may lead to deformity is called club foot. There are four forms of club foot

  • Dorsiflexion club-foot called calcaneus

  • Plantarflexion club-foot called equinus

  • Inversion club-foot called valgus

  • Eversion club-foot called varus

There can be a combination of all the above such that you have 8 combinations with a ninth one that stands on its own called cavus. It is a hollowing of the midpart of foot. All are referred to as talipes.







Calcaneovarus/ dorsiflexion-inversion



Cavus/in hollowing







By far the commonest club-foot is talipes equinovarus.

Hammer toe

The extensor apparatus in the foot has similar architecture with the hand. The major difference is that the interossei do not enter the extensor expansion on the metatarsophalangeal joints. Hence the ability to keep the writing position is weak except in some individuals who have learnt to use the foot in such position. When the lateral plantar nerve is damaged, the extensor mechanism is further weakened just as the damage to ulnar nerve weakens in the hand. The foot is now placed in a reverse writing position with the interphalageal joints flexed and the metatarsophalangeal joint extended. This leads to hammer toe and it affects the 2nd toe more frequently than other toes.





Lymphatic drainage
Organ integration
Clinical anatomy
Subtalar joint

Talocalcaneonavicular joint

Calcaneocuboid joint

Cuneonavicular joint

Cuboideonaviclar joint

Cuneocuboid joint

Intercuneiform joints

Tarsometatarsal joints

Intermetatarsal joints

Metatarsophalangeal joints

Interphalangeal joints of foot

Injuries of tarsal bones
Injuries of metatarsal bones
Phalangeal injuries of foot
Injuries of tarsometatarsal joint of big toe
Injuries of metatarsophalangeal joints
Injuries of interphalangeal joints of foot
Injuries of tarsometatarsal joint of big toe
Injuries to interphalangeal joints of foot
See body map


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Creator: Oluwole Ogunranti