Clinical aspect of brain

Brain injury

There are two types

  • Brain affection

  • Hemorrhaging

In brain affection, trauma may be a concussion, contusion or cerebral laceration with increasing degrees of severity of unconsiousness and brain damage.


The following can occur in the brain

Cerebrovascular accidents

These accidents are caused by vascular defect leading to ischaemia or infarction of various areas of the brain. They are categorised as follows

1. Thrombotic causes. The lodging of intravascular clot which blocks the blood supply to an area of the body; in this case, the nervous system. It is usually referred to as thrombo-embolic phenomenon, because it arises from embolism in many cases.

2. Intracerebral haemorrhage. In this condition, blood vessels break open and bleed. The blood which is to supply the area may then be cut off and this may compound a pressure problem on surrounding structures caused by the hemorrhage. The areas above may then have both pressure symptoms which is a major problem for nerves and also structures of the CNS. Nerves can be damaged as a result of pressure or direct injury which may then cause any of the following

  • Neurotmesis

  • Axonotmesis

  • Neurapraxia

When symptoms and signs which are usually called clinical features help to determine a particular central nervous system lesion, that is called lateralizing signs.

Such signs include

Brain artery syndromes: These are syndromes affecting the brain as a result of loss or occlusion of the main arterial supply to the brain.

Other syndromes of interest are as follows

Pontine syndromes

Medullary syndromes





Cell Biology

Gross anatomy
Lymphatic drainage
Organ integration
Clinical anatomy





Chemical Pathology

Anatomical Pathology






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Oluwole Ogunranti