Thyroid gland

 

Endocrine gland which lies on trachea in the front of neck.

It is bilobed brownish and placed at level between C5 and T1 vertebrae with a median isthmus. It has two lobes, left and right lobes. It may also have a pyramidal lobe which may ascend to the hyoid bone.

It is enclosed in pretracheal fascia.

 

Relations

Medial relations- larynx, trachea, inferior constrictor of pharynx, cricothyroid, external laryngeal nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve, esophagus

Anterior relations- sternohyoid, inferior belly of omohyoid, sternocleidomastoid

Lateral- sternothyroid.

 

Arteries

Superior thyroid artery, inferior thyroid artery, thyroidea ima, pharyngeal thyroid branches, tracheal thyroid branches.

 

Veins

Superior thyroid vein, middle thyroid vein, inferior thyroid vein

 

Nerves

Superior, middle and inferior cervical sympathetic ganglia

 

Lymphatics

Thoracic and right lymph ducts through lymph vessels which drain into these vessels.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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1 trachea 2 esophagus 3 inferior constrictor 4 thyroid cartilage 5 middle constrictor 6 hyoid bone 7 superior constrictor 8 buccinator 9 levator veli palatini 10 tensor veli palatini 11 mandible 12 mylohyoid 13 thyrohyoid 14 stylopharyngeus15 stylohyoid 16 stylopharyngeus 17 thyroglossal cyts 18 thyroglossal fistula 19 thyroid gland

 

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