The kidney is a bilateral organ, having right and left glands. It lies on the posterior abdominal wall and it is completely retroperitoneal. It is bean-shaped, having its medial aspect presenting with a hilus by which structures enter or leave the kidney. The structures at the hilus are as follows

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Renal vein (anterior)

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Renal artery (middle)

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Pelvis of ureter (posterior), which lies in the renal sinus.

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Accessory branch of renal artery (most posterior)- if available

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Nerves and lymphatics are placed in any position within the hilus.

The kidney has two surfaces

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Anterior surface

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Posterior surface

It is provided with three capsules, some of which extend upwards to the suprarenal glands, from inside out.

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Renal capsule

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Perinephric fat

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Renal fascia.

Right kidney

This is slightly lower than the left by about 1.2cm. It is due to the placement of the liver.

Left kidney

This is placed slightly higher than the right

This structure is placed at the right and left hypochondria, lying on the posterior abdominal wall.

Arteries:

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Ureteric branch of renal artery

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Ureteric branches of abdominal aorta

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Ureteric branch of testicular artery (male)

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Ureteric branch of ovarian artery (female)

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Ureteric branch of common iliac artery

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Ureteric branch of internal iliac artery

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Ureteric branch of inferior vesical artery (male)

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Ureteric branch of uterine artery (female)

Lobar branches give rise to

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Interlobar branches
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Arcuate branches
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Interlobular branches
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Afferent glomerular arterioles

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Efferent glomerular arterioles
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Cortical intertubular capillary plexuses

We also have accessory renal arteries, which are branches of the main renal artery itself.

Veins:

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Ureteric tributaries of renal vein

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Ureteric tributaries of inferior vena cava

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Ureteric tributaries of testicular vein

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Ureteric tributaries of ovarian vein

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Ureteric tributaries of common iliac  vein

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Ureteric tributaries of internal iliac vein

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Ureteric tributaries of inferior vesical vein (male)

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Ureteric tributaries of uterine vein (female)

 

Nerves:

From the ureteric plexus, which is formed on the the renal plexus. It also receives branches from the aortic plexus. It is divided into three parts as follows

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Upper is from aortic and renal plexus

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Middle part is from the superior hypogastric plexus and the hypogastric nerve

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Lower part is from the hypogastric nerve  and the inferior hypogastric plexus.

All the nerves have their parasympathetic fibers from the left and right vagus nerves.

Relations of kidney

 

 

Rotator

Locator

 

 
Kidney rotator/locator video

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Posterior view Internal view Fresh kidney Nephron blood supply

There is nothing in anatomy not found in this website

Electronic School of Medicine
Creator: Oluwole Ogunranti


External aspect of kidneys 


Kidney- internal structure- 3D

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Kidney anterior surface: 1 renal artery 2 renal vein 3 ureter

Renal artery to the kidney (longitudinal section)

 

Vessels of cortex and medulla

  

 

 

 

 

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