This begins at the splenic flexure where the transverse colon terminates. It is completely retroperitoneal and its about 25cm long. It runs to its termination at its junction with the sigmoid colon where that organ gains its mesosigmoid. It lies in the middle of the left medial and lateral paracolic gutters.

Arteries:

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Left colic artery

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Upper branches of the sigmoidal arteries.

All are branches of the inferior mesenteric artery.

Veins:

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Left colic vein

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Upper tributaries of the sigmoidal veins.

All are tributaries of the inferior mesenteric vein, which enters into the splenic vein.  The splenic vein forms the portal vein with superior mesenteric vein behind the neck of pancreas.

Nerves:

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Parasympathetic fibers are through the pelvic splanchnic nerves (or nervi erigentes) from S2-4. Sympathetic fibers are from the lumbar splanchnic nerves, which relay in the inferior mesenteric ganglion of the inferior mesenteric plexus.


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