Pectoral region  

The pectoral region is that part of the upper extremity, which is placed in front of the chest wall. It carries the breast or mammary gland

It also has the following structures

Skin: The skin is lax and contains Langerís lines running transversely. Suspensory ligaments (or ligaments of Astley Cooper; or  ligaments of Cooper) of the breast run from the deep fascia, which covers the muscle to the skin.

 

1 nipple 2 anterior axillary fold 3 armpit 4 shoulder 5 sternum  6 Biceps brachii 7 posterior triangle of neck 8 trapezius 9 midline of neck 10 sternocleidomastoid 11 jugular notch


 
Superficial fascia: This underlies the skin and covers the whole mammary gland for the whole of the gland is embedded in the superficial fascia.

 

 

Roll over mouse to display mammary gland

1 chest vein 2 cephalic vein 3 medial supraclavicular nerve 4 intermediate supraclavicular nerve 6 lateral supraclavicular nerve 7 branches medial cutaneous nerve of forearm 8 branches of medial cutaneous nerve of arm 9 anterior cutaneous branches of intercostal nerves

Deep fascia: This is called pectoral fascia and it covers the external surface of the pectoralis major. It is continuous with deep investing fascia of neck superiorly and with the Scarpa's fascia of anterior abdominal wall inferiorly. The part between the pectoralis minor and the clavicle, which completely invests the subclavius is the clavipectoral fascia. It is pierced by four structures as follows

 

1 axillary vein 2 lateral pectoral nerve 3 thoracoacromial artery

The pectoralis minor fascia begins at its junction with the axillary fascia, which forms the floor of the axilla. It runs upwards to reach the external border of pectoralis minor, where it splits into two to invest the external and internal surfaces of that muscle. It then meets at its internal border to continue upwards. It splits again to invest the subclavius and finally gains attachment (with the subclavius)  to the undersurface of the clavicle at the subclavian groove of that structure.

 

1 pectoralis minor fascia covering pectoralis minor. Seen under the fascia are the medial and lateral pectoral nerves 2 clavipectoral fascia 3 deltoid 4 cephalic vein 5 serratus anterior 6 lateral pectoral nerve 7 axillary vessels and lateral cord of brachial plexus

Muscles

 

1 trapezius 2 thoracoacromial artery 3 clavipectoral fascia 4 pectoralis minor and fascia 5 serratus anterior  6 thoracodorsal nerve 7 ulnar nerve 8 brachial artery 9 cut part of pectoralis major 10 head of humerus 11 long head of biceps brachii tendon 12 cut and reflected distal end of pectoralis minor 13 median nerve 14 medial cutaneous nerve of forearm 15 biceps brachii belly 16 clavicle  17 deltoid (cut)   

 

 

Arteries

 

1 axillary artery 2 axillary vein 3 highest thoracic artery 4 thoracoacromial artery 5 lateral thoracic artery 6 anterior circumflex humeral artery7 posterior circumflex humeral artery 8 brachial vessels 9 median nerve 10 subscapular artery 11 pectoralis minor

Veins

Corresponding veins of the branches of the arteries or their venae comitantes. They have the same course

 

1 axillary artery 2 axillary vein 3 highest thoracic vein 4 thoracoacromial 5 lateral thoracic vein 6 anterior circumflex humeral vein 7 posterior circumflex humeral vein 8 brachial vein 9 median nerve 10 subscapular vessels 11 pectoralis minor

 

Nerves

 

 

Bones

  1. Clavicle

  2. Scapula

  3. Upper part of humerus

Others

 

 

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